Fascism- a new, militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader
Benito Mussolini- rescue Italy by reviving its economy and rebuilding its armed forces. He vowed to give Italy strong leadership. Mussolini had founded the Fascist Party in 1919
Adolf Hitler- little-known political leader whose early life had been marked by disappointment. When World War I broke out, Hitler found a new beginning. He volunteered for the German army and was twice awarded the Iron Cross, a medal for bravery
Nazism- At the end of the war, Hitler settled in Munich. In 1919, he joined a tiny right-wing political group. This group shared his belief that Germany had to overturn the Treaty of Versailles and combat communism. The group later named itself the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, called Nazi for short. Its policies formed the German brand of fascism
Mein Kampf- Hitler’s novel that he wrote in jail
Lebensraum- Living space
2.Do you think Hitler and Mussolini were more alike or differnt? Explain Why? Hitler was a fan of Mussolini but he put his own spin on Fascism. Mussolini was fired by his party in Italy and no one in Germany would have dared to try that with Hitler. They were similar in the way that they both wanted to take over a certain country and eventually take over the world. Also they were both watchful over the League of Nations. They are also similar in the way that they both lost and they both died in the end of all their chaos.
6. Why did a movement like fascism and leaders like Mussolini and Hitler come to power during a period of crisis? Such leaders come to power by appealing to a frustrated and desperate population. In the early 1930s, Germans were suffering from hyperinflation. They were also paying most of the reparations for WWI. Adolf Hitler was inspirational and nationalistic, at a time when most of Europe blamed Germany for World War I.
7.Why do you think Hitler had German children join Nazi organizations? In the beginning of the party's existence Hitler sought to indoctrinate the youth of Germany into Nazi ideals. He did this initially by creating a version of the boy scouts called the "Hitler Youth". This was originally a fairly innocuous version of the scouts however as Hitler moved toward war, the real intent was revealed. The Hitler youth not only indoctrinated the children of Germany into support of the Third Reich, it also started to train and assess individuals for entry into the German army.
In the last few months of the war as the Allies pushed toward Berlin, the defenders started to employ boy soldiers to fight alongside the Volkssturm (The German version of the Home guard). A frequently played newsreel propaganda film made by the Nazi's, shows Hitler shaking boy soldiers hands, so it was highly unlikely that he did not know it was happening.
8.What emotions did both Hitler and Mussolini stir in their followers? Hitler and Mussolini stirred fascist ideology that both of them believed in believed in, the two leaders tried to use rhetoric and propaganda to stir up feelings of anti-communism, anti-capitalism, anti semitism, nationalistic pride, and most importantly, that the laws and actions of the government are for the common good.