FAVALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS: A CASE STUDY OF MANGOES IN KENYA
Prepared by the Sugar and Beverages Group Raw Materials, Tropical and Horticultural Products Service Commodities and Trade Division Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Table of Contents
I. II. III. IV.
INTRODUCTION MANGO PRODUCTION, MARKETING AND PROCESSING FACTORS PREVENTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MANGO SUPPLY CHAIN CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
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This document reviews fruit production and yield trends, mango production, marketing and processing of smallholders and traders along the mango value chain in Kenya. It also examines future development prospects. The horticultural sub-sector in Kenya comprises mainly fruits, vegetables and cut flowers, and accounts for about 10 percent of urban food consumption and a much larger percentage in rural areas. Vegetables dominate horticultural production, followed by fruits and cut flowers. In 2003, a total area of 373 000 hectares was dedicated to horticultural production, producing 4.35 million tonnes of horticultural products, valued at US$494.4 million. The contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was 3.5 percent and 14.5 percent to Agric ultural Gross Domestic Product1. However, the value of production was lower than that of 2002 and 2001 which were US$503.6 million and US$528.4 million, respectively. The subsector also provides employment to a large number of Kenyans, currently estimated at 2 million, both direct and indirect jobs. Table 1: Percentage of cultivated area, volume of production and value of horticultural products (2003) % cultivated area %Volume of production % Value of Production Vegetables 59 55 57 Fruits 40 44.8 32 Cut flowers 1 0.2 11 Fruit and vegetables are also important sources of foreign exchange earnings, which ranged between US$260 and US$350 million in recent years, ranking second to tea, and accounting for 21 percent of total domestic exports in 2003. Mango has been the third most important fruit in terms of area and total production over the last ten years with bananas (including plantains) and pineapples as number one and number two respectively in terms of production. Production trends are presented in Figures 1 and 2. The output of mangoes, avocados and passion fruits has increased rapidly, while output shares of bananas and pineapples have declined. Figure 1: Production of mangoes, avocado, passion fruit and papaya (1992-2003) 200,000 Production (Tons) 150,000 100,000 50,000 Mango Avocado Passion Pawpaw
In 2003, national GDP was estimated at US$14.2 billion, while Agricultural GDP was about US$3.4 billion.
4 Figure 2: Value of major fruits grown in Kenya as a percent of total value, 2002 - 2003 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%
Ci tru s Pa wp aw s Av oc ad Pa oe s ss ion fru its Ot he r fr uit s Ba na na s Pin ea pp les M an go es
Share of Total Value
Value 2002 Value 2003
Source: Based on statistics from HCDA/MOA.
MANGO PRODUCTION, MARKETING AND PROCESSING
Mango output in Kenya has increased steadily over the past decade as yields have improved to the current level of 10 tonnes per hectare (Figure 3). Figure 3: Yields (tonnes/ha.) of mango and passion fruits (1992-2003) 14.00 12.00 Yield (Tons/Ha) 10.00 8.00 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 Mango Passion
In 2003, mango production was estimated at more than 183 000 tonnes (Table 2). Eastern Province accounted for 54 percent, Coast Province for 22 percent and Nyanza Province for 8 percent.
Table 2: Mango production 2002/2003 by province
PROVINCE Central Coast Eastern Western Nyanza Rift Valley N/Eastern Total Hectares (Ha) 2002 650 8,240 4,668 966 1,258 566 325 16,673 2003 749 7,920 4,750 986 1,850 683 330 17,268 Production (MT) 2002...
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