# Fantastic Book of Logic and Puzzle

Sterling Publishing Co., Inc.

New York

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Mandell, Muriel. Fantastic book of logic puzzles. Includes index. Summary: A collection of seventy illustrated logic puzzles set in fantastic locales such as outer space or mythical kingdoms, with explanations of the logical reasoning needed to solve them. Includes charts, grids, diagrams, and a section of clues to consult before resorting to the answer section. 1. Puzzles—Juvenile literature. 2. Logic— Juvenile literature. [1. Puzzles. 2. Logic] I. Chanowitz, Elise, ill. II. Title. GV1493.M25 1986 793.73 86-5980 ISBN 0-8069-4754-3 ISBN 0-8069-4756-X (pbk.) ISBN 0-8069-4755-1 (lib. bdg.) 7 9 10 8

For Horace

Copyright © 1986 by Muriel Mandell Illustrations copyright © 1986 by Elise Chanowitz Published by Sterling Publishing Co., Inc. 387 Park Avenue South, New York, N.Y. 10016 Distributed in Canada by Sterling Publishing % Canadian Manda Group, P.O. Box 920, Station U Toronto, Ontario, Canada M8Z 5P9 Distributed in Great Britain and Europe by Cassell PLC Artillery House, Artillery Row, London SW1P 1RT, England Distributed in Australia by Capricorn Ltd. P.O. Box 665, Lane Cove, NSW 2066 Manufactured in the United States of America All rights reserved

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to acknowledge my debt to Irving M. Copi's Introduction to Logic, to master puzzlemaker Henry Ernest Dudeney, to Martin Gardner, and to Fred. Schuh. The following looked over the manuscript and offered suggestions: mathematician and puzzle-enthusiast Dr. David Greenwald; Dr. Arnold Scheiman of Park West High School; Dr. Ira Ewen, Director of Thinking Skills of the New York City Public Schools; and Edith Novod, Arline Beitler, Stanley Beitler, Jonathan Mandell, and Horace Mandell. The book would never have been written without the encouragement and editorial guidance of my editor at Sterling, Sheila Barry.

Before You Begin Would Martians Lie? Planetary Crossings Martian Mischief Matching Wits In the Ogre's Dungeon The Genie's Revenge Genie Devilment The Dragon Montagne Wizards of Odds Magic Forces Clues Answers Index

6 8 14 18 24 30 36 42 48 56 64 83 93 128

Puzzles are a time-honored fun-filled way of learning to reason logically, to develop thinking skills. They serve the same function for the mind as exercise does for the body. And they've been doing it for centuries. Puzzles have provided intellectual pleasure for the thinkers of every age, from the early Egyptians, the legendary Oriental philosophers, the ancient Greeks, and such renowned medieval scholars as Alcuin and Rabbi Ben Ezra. But logic puzzles are no mere entertainment. Many practical disciplines, including geometry, developed— at least in part—from the concepts and ideas in these mathematical games. The highly useful theory of probability, on which so much of our modern life is based, supposedly stemmed from an attempt by the 17th century mathematician Pascal to solve a gambling dispute! (This is the self-same Pascal, by the way, who at 19 invented one of the early calculating machines.) And the formulas in the "Wizards of Odds" are used by handicappers and economists alike. You'll find examples of many popular types of logic puzzles in this book. It's not necessary to start with any particular chapter, but it is a good idea to concentrate on one chapter at a time and complete most of the puzzles in it—preferably in order—before you go on to the next.

Each chapter starts with the simplest puzzles of a particular type, so that you build up your understanding and skills step by step. If you get stuck, you'll find help in the "Clues" section of the book, which starts on page 83. Sometimes the hint will point out a tricky bit of language, sometimes it will reveal the particular approach to take. Occasionally, it will give a simple formula, the mathematical shorthand for the logical thinking involved. But with these logic...

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