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GRADED UNIT EXAM
First Question – Research Methods
One of the key elements of the Graded Unit is the 40 mark Research Methods question.
Experiments: types – ‘Lab, Field and Natural’.
Most used within Psychology.
Tests Hypothesis, uses results to accept or reject hypothesis. ·
Does the I.V effect the DV
W ho - Stanley Milgram, a psychologist at Yale University.
W hat - conducted an experiment focusing on the conflict between obedience to authority and personal conscience. He examined justifications for acts of genocide offered by those accused at the World War II, Nuremberg War Criminal trials. Their defense often was based on "obedience" - that they were just following orders of their superiors. W hen – 1963
M ethod - Milgram selected participants for his experiment by advertising for male participants to take part in a study of learning at Yale University. The procedure was that the participant was paired with another person and they drew lots to find out who would be the ‘learner’ and who would be the ‘teacher’. The draw was fixed so that the participant was always the teacher, and the learner was one of Milgram’s confederates (pretending to be a real participant). The learner (a confederate called Mr. Wallace) was taken into a room and had electrodes attached to his arms, and the teacher and researcher went into a room next door that contained an electric shock generator and a row of switches marked from 15 volts (Slight Shock) to 375 volts (Danger: Severe Shock) to 450 volts (XXX).
F inding - 65% (two-thirds) of participants (i.e. teachers) continued to the highest level of 450 volts. All the participants continued to 300 volts.
Milgram did more than one experiment – he carried out 18 variations of his study. All he did was alter the situation (IV) to see how this affected obedience (DV). I mplications - Ordinary people are likely to follow orders given by an authority figure, even to the extent of killing an innocent human being. Obedience to authority is ingrained in us all from the way we are brought up. Obey parents, teachers, anyone in authority etc.
Biased – all volunteers where male. Does this affect women also???? -
W ho - David Rosenhan was Professor of Law & Psychology at Stanford University W hat – Field experiment, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that psychiatrists cannot reliably tell the difference between people who are sane and those who are insane.
The main study is an example of a field experiment. The manipulation (independent variable) was the made up symptoms of the wannabe patients, and the dependent variable was the psychiatrists' admission and diagnostic label of the wannabe patient. The study also involved participant observation, since, once admitted, the wannabe-patients kept written records of how the ward as a whole operated, as well as how they personally were treated.
The first part of the study involved eight sane people (a psychology graduate student in his 20s, three psychologists, a paediatrician, a psychiatrist, a painter, and a 'housewife') attempting to gain admission to 12 different hospitals, in five different states in the USA. There were three women and five men.
These wannabe-patients telephoned the hospital for an appointment, and arrived at the admissions office complaining that they had been hearing voices. They said the voice, which was unfamiliar and the same sex as themselves, was often unclear but it said 'empty', 'hollow', 'thud'. These symptoms were partly chosen because they were similar to existential symptoms (Who am I? What is it all for?) which arise from concerns about how meaningless your life is. They were also chosen because there is no mention of existential psychosis in the literature.
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