Police deviance may be viewed as a very controversial topic by some and most people hold an opinion about it because of the nature of the policing profession. Using the positivist perspective involving empirical knowledge deviance can be defined as “a determined behaviour, a product of causation; hence, casual, explanatory theory can be developed” (Thio 2010:11). As a result of this view, police deviance in regards to breaking the law can be justifiable because police work can be stressful. Decades of studies have been done in the light of objectivism and these studies have revealed that “the pressures of law enforcement put officers at risk for high blood pressure, insomnia, increase of destructive stress hormones, depression, heart problems, post-traumatic stress disorder and suicide”() (.http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/123334.php) I find that a constructionist paradigm better suites the view of police deviance. Within the constructionist perspective, relativism sees “[d]eviance as a label, defined such at a given time and place; hence labellers, labelling, and impact of labeling can be subject of study” (Thio 2010:11). People who represent the power elite are the ones who apply the labels to society, usually those who violate laws. “Labellers include the police, judges, prison guards, psychiatrists, mental hospital attendants, and other social control agents” (Thio 2010:35). The individuals whom are most likely to be associated with the labelling include racial or ethnic minorities, genders and sexual minorities, religious minorities, people of low social status like the poor, homeless, age minorities, and those with disabilities. In this paper I will discuss police deviance through the view of the constructionist perspective and focus on volunteerism because “deviance is a voluntary act, an expression of free will; hence, non-casual descriptive theory can be developed.” (Thio 2010:11) What I mean by this is that acts of excessive force, abuse of power, and other deviant actions are made by individual choices aided by the positions they are in. This is an important contemporary topic, because it deals with important moral and psychosocial effects that the actions of police have on the rest of Canadian society. The actions of the police can also be seen as selective because there choices are made based on their position(s) in society. Most officers and constables honour their position of power whereas a small minority abuse it. Police deviance includes all acts which are inconsistent with norms, values, or ethics from a societal and police standpoint. When it comes to police deviance they not only break the societal norms they also break the norms within the police force. A police officer’s position requires them to exhaust all methods of non-violent crisis intervention before the use of force is applied. Methods of crisis de-escalation and the ability to use social methods, rather than physical methods when unnecessary should be stressed during times of training. This will then, set the precedent on how police officers follow the policy and procedures regarding the use of force. As a result, each police force develops a similar use of force model and creates a more reliable law enforcement system in Canada. I will now discuss some cases that have demonstrated police deviance. In the cases of Stacy Bonds, Terry Arthur Delay and Roxanne Carr the application of the use of force by the Ottawa Police are almost identical in nature and two of these cases include the same deviant police officer which further proves that police deviance is isolated amongst a small minority of police officers. In this paper, I will focus on the Stacy Bonds, Terry Arhur Delay and Roxanne Carr cases because these types of cases are much more common and similar to each other. All these cases where not acts of determined behaviour nor were they a product of causation but rather a voluntary deviant act and an expression of free will....
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