“There’s a mighty big difference between good, sound reasons, and reasons that sound good.” (Burton Hillis, cited in Laurence J. Peter, Peter’s Quotations: Ideas for Our Time, p.425.) A fallacy is an (as cited in “List of fallacies” from Wikipedia, pg. 1) “incorrect argument in logic and rhetoric resulting in a lack of validity, or more generally, a lack of soundness.” Knowing what defines a fallacy and how to dispute one can provide clarity on valid arguments. There are formal and informal fallacies that commonly used in arguments that are not sound. There are fallacies can be very difficult to detect because the reader has set beliefs and morals that they believe. Knowing that not all invalid argument are fallacies, fallacies are logical errors in an argument. Learning the different fallacies and what they look like will force the reader to clear all previous judgment.
Detecting an argument that contains fallacies, the reader must find the fallacies that the arguer cannot explain with valid evidence and ask questions on why the arguer cannot explain the fallacy. One example of a common informal fallacy used is religion is appeal to faith, which is a rhetorical appeal. Appeal to faith is only using belief to prove a point. Faith is the belief that logical evidence is not needed. The whole point of a valid argument is a correct use of logic. If faith is not logical then, the argument can be disputed immediately. Appeal to faith seems to be one of the most used fallacies in religious debates. The reason appeal to faith is a fallacy, the fallacy does not state logic to prove or disprove the conclusion. The fallacy uses emotions to persuade then the actual reason. Formal fallacies use appeal to probability and conjunction fallacies. Appeal to probability is saying if something can go wrong it will. Conjunction fallacies assumed that multiple conditions are more probable than a single general one. By these fallacies alone, the reader...
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