This section intends to explain the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study and the scope of the study. 1.2 Background of the Study
An old saying holds that those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it. Unfortunately, many officers seem to think the history of police work began
the day they first pinned on a badge and strapped on a gun belt. For this reason, each emerging movement in law enforcement tends to be seen as something completely new, without historical context. Such is largely the case today with community policing. To better understand today's debate over community policing, law enforcement administrators should study their history. History debunks the more outrageous claims made by some of the proponents of community policing and cautions against forgetting the important lessons of the past. It shows us that calls to change the way the police operate have been a constant theme from the very beginning of municipal policing. And, it reminds us that our problems today--while serious--are really nothing new. The history of modern law enforcement began 166 years ago with the formation of the London Metropolitan Police District in 1829. By creating a new police force, the British Parliament hoped to address the soaring crime rate in and around the nation's capital, attributed at the time to rapid urban growth, unchecked immigration, poverty, alcoholism, radical political groups, poor infrastructure, unsupervised juveniles, and lenient judges. The concept of community policing for the first time introduced in the United Kingdom (UK) by Sir Robert Peel in 1829, and later on started to spread to other developed countries like United States of America (USA), Canada and Japan had succeeded in preventing and combating matters related crimes since 1960s ( Murphy and Gazza, 2007). The third world countries particularly those of Southern Saharan Africa (SSA) countries where the community policing had been adopted are South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Malawi and Tanzania in recently years in 2004 according to Tanzania police force website. However, perhaps the most enduring and influential innovation introduced was the establishment of regular patrol areas, known as "beats." Before 1829, the police--whether military or civilian--only responded after a crime had been reported. Patrols occurred on a sporadic basis, and any crime deterrence or apprehension of criminals in the act of committing crimes happened almost by accident. Community policing is the most widely used term for a loosely defined set of police philosophies, strategies, and tactics known either as problem-oriented policing, neighborhood-oriented policing, or community- oriented policing. However, perhaps "post professionalism" or "neotraditionalism" would be more descriptive labels. Like the police-community relations movement, community policing stems from a view of the police as a multifunctional social service agency working to reduce the despair of poverty. Like team policing, community policing is rooted in the belief that the traditional officer on the beat will bring the police and the public closer together. At the same time, it maintains the professional model's support for education and research. Instead of merely responding to emergency calls and arresting criminals, community policing officers devote considerable time to performing social work, working independently and creatively on solutions to the problems on their beats. It follows that they make extensive personal contacts, both inside and outside their agencies. All of this flies in the face of a police culture that values crime fighting, standard operating procedures, and a paramilitary chain of command. 1.3 Statement of the Problem
Tanzania Police Force Reform Programmes (TPF-RP) of 2006 has been enhanced much the philosophy of Community Policing that was initially introduced in 2004 at...
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