Topics: Water, Temperature, Chemical bond Pages: 4 (1103 words) Published: June 16, 2014
Martin, Marilen1, Lovenia, Melden D.2
1Professor, School of Che-Chm-BE-MSE, Mapua Institute of Technology; 2Students, Chm145L/A41, School of Che-Chm-BE-MSE, Mapua Institute of Technology

The experiment was conducted to accomplish the following objectives. The first objective aims to synthesize an isomer of alkenes. This was done by converting maleic acid to fumaric acid. This conversion was accomplished by applying a heat-catalyzed reaction on maleic acid diluted in distilled water and mixing it with HCl using a reflux set-up. A reflex set up is a distillation set up wherein the set up differed because it is inverted vertically. This was done in order to break the pi bond to allow the rotation about the remaining sigma bond since rotation about a pi bond is not possible. After the acid has been refluxed, a white precipitate has formed and the solution was filtered using a Buchner funnel. Where the product had been tested for melting point and calculated its percentage yield. Keywords : Reflux set up, isomerization of alkenes

Isomers which differ only in the orientations of substituents around a carbon to carbon double bond are known as geometric isomers. When a pair of identical groups is attached to the central carbon with the double bond it could be classified as cis or trans. The classification of the cis and the trans stereoisomer are basically relative to the position of the identical substituents attached to the given carbon double bond. Since the rotation about a double bond is not possible, conversion of geometric isomer into another form of isomer is possible only by breaking the pi bond and then rotating about the remaining sigma bond. This shows that geometric isomers are not interconvertible and different from conformational isomers. Breakage and rotation of bonds, forming a new form of the substance can lay effects on the chemical. Since orientation of the initial group was changed, the...

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