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Factors Affecting Dropouts

Topics: High school, College, Dropout, Education, Higher education, Secondary school / Pages: 28 (6862 words) / Published: Feb 20th, 2013
FACTORS AFFECTING DROPOUTS IN PERCEPTION OF THE STUDENTS IN THE NATIONAL TEACHERS COLLEGE
QUIAPO ,MANILA

An Undergraduate Thesis Presented To the Faculty of the
College of Education

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the

APPROVAL SHEET In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor in Secondary Education Major in MAPEH. This Thesis entitled “Factors Affecting Dropouts in perception of the students in the National Teachers College, Quiapo, Manila” has been prepared by Jayson Dollisen who is here by recommended for oral examination.
_________________ ___________________
Date Thesis Adviser
Approved as partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the THCON 1 with the Grade of
____________
Panel of Examiners
_________________
Chairman
_________________ ___________________
Member Member
Accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the THCON 1. _________________ ____________________
Date Dean CED

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to extend my gratitude to the following persons for helping me to make this work possible.
To my Parents, Mr. and Mrs. Vicente Dollisen who gave me financial support and for understanding me when I was coming late at home.
To my professor, for guiding and teach me how to make a formal thesis.
To Mrs. Monteroso I learned from him on how to be a better researcher.
To my friends, Arvin Deretcho, Von Castillo, Ernesto Tabios, Dom Tolentino, Hector Sales, Edfort Duque, Lester Abratigue, and also Michael Pajo for the inspiration they gave.
And to our God almighty, who gave me wisdom and knowledge to finish this study.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
APPROVAL SHEET
TABLE OF CONTENTS
AKNOWLEDGEMENT
LIST OF TABLES
CHAPTER
I. The Problem and its background
Introduction
Conceptual Framework
Statement of the Problem
Scope and Delimitation
Significance of the Study
Definition of Terms
II. Review of Related Literature and Studies
Related Literature
Related Studies
III. Research Methodology
Research Method Used
Population Frame and Sampling Scheme
Description of the Respondents
Instrumentation Used
Data Gathering Procedure
Statistical Treatment of Data
CHAPTER I
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND This chapter presents the Problem and its Background consisting of Introduction, Statement of the Problem, Conceptual Framework, Scope and Delimitation, Significance of the Study, and Definition of Terms.

Introduction Education brings wide-ranging benefits to both individuals and societies. It is considered so important to individual development that the right to primary education is legally guarantied in most countries of the world. Moreover, international human rights conservations also recognize the right to education. This right has been established by a succession of UN conventions, from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) to the convention on the Rights of the Child (1989), which acquired the status of International law in 1990. According to Article 28 of the Convention, government has the responsibility of making primary education compulsory and available free to all.
Education is also recognized as crucial to human development indeed the Education for all (EFA) movement and the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) have led to greater attention paid to Education is Goal 2 of both EFA ( Jomtien ; 1990; reaffirmed in Dakar, 200) and the MDGS, adopted by UN member states in 2000 (UNESCO, 2000; UN 2003).
In the context of international goals as commitments, the number of out-of-schoolchildren is one of the most frequently cited education statistics. It is therefore crucial that, not only an appropriate definition and methodology are used, but that there is a good understanding of the results, their interpretation and limitations. It is important to clearly recognize that the final goal is not only to get children in school but to ensure schooling results in good learning outcomes,

Statement of the Problem This study aims to asses the factors affecting Dropouts in perceptions of the Students in the National Teachers College.
Specifically, the study seeks to answer the following questions:
1. What was the Profile of the students of college of Education in The National Teachers College relative to?
1.1 age and sex
1.2 socio-economic status?
2. What were the causes of pupils dropping-out from classes?
3. What measures had been adopted by the teacher to minimize drop-outs?
4. What would be motivating the dropout to go back to school?
5. What proposal may be formulated to curb the drop-out rate?

Conceptual Framework Various studies and researchers that were made recommended action and some measure to be imply to students to continue their study. Most of the school administrator they are always seeking on how to encourage the students to pursue their study and they have some particular study of major reasons of decreasing of population or drop-out in their school is the family problem in which has an important part into the students to acquire quality education. As we all know some of the Filipino students are not giving opportunity into entered the school so that at this time much of the elected officers in their municipal hall has guiding a free education to find out if the study could be effective in some way of preventing the decreasing of population or drop-outs in schools.

This study is based on the concept that perceptions of the students and teachers in The National Teachers College.

This concept is illustrated in the Paradigm bellow.
Research Paradigm
INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

Scope and Delimitation This study is essentially founded the Factors affecting Dropouts in the college of education in NTC Manila. It will focus on the factors affecting DROPOUTS. The study also searches what is the possible way to prevent the decreasing of population/or dropouts in school.

Significance of the Study
The result of this study will be beneficial to the following.
To the studies, it will help them to prevent this particular problem. This study will be treated of what could be the possible effect to them if they don’t continue their study. This study created to assume to avoid decreasing of population/ or dropout of students.
To the school administrator; it will provide additional information and motivate them on how to prevent this kind of case inside the school. This study will help them to be aware in deferent causes inside of students to engage dropout and how they can minimize the problem and given a solution or treatment to this particular case.
To the teachers; it will give them knowledge on different cases why students are engaged of dropout and to handle this kind of case.
To the parents; this study will open the mind of the parents to help their children to study and develop the behavior and personality of a child in order to have a better future.

Definition of terms
Education-The knowledge or skill obtained or developed by a learning process.
Dropout- One who quits school.
Teacher - One who teaches, especially one hired to teach.
Empirical- Relying on or derived from observation or experiment

Chapter II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This Chapter deals with are view of Literature and studies which are found to have bearing present studies.

Related Literature

According to (Spady 1969) The dropout process from higher education is examined from a variety of operational definitions and intellectual perspectives. A methodological analysis, critique, and sythes of the empirical literature suggest that a more rigorous interdisiplinary approach must be attempted,. A model based on Durkheim’s theory of suicide provides a fruitful vehicle for summarizing a large proportion of current research and focusing attention in interaction between student attributes and the influences, expectations and demands imposed by Darious sources in the university environment. Both the academic and social systems of the university are regarded as important frameworks from which the drop outs process must be examined. An Empirical analysis operational zing the variables in the model will be presented in the sequel to this paper.

According to( Malaya News, 2000), PIGB Program aims to cut dropout rate. A dramatic intervention in basic education aims to reduce the dropout rate in 22 poorest provinces unlock the growth potentials of these areas, the Department of Education, Culture and Sports said yesterday.

Through a massive school building program, increase in the supply of textbooks and the upgrading of teaching standards. The Third Elementary Education Project(TEEP) is expected to cut deep into the dropout rates in these. “pockets of poverty”, Education Secretary Andrew Gonzalez said.
“the TEEP is a massive investment for basic education thet is the Estrada administration’s moral equivalent of war against poverty and stagnation and underdevelopment”. Said Gonzales.

Education Undersecretary Victor Andres Manhit said the P16.9 Billion TEEP is a “complete package” that covers in Frasructure, textbooks, and instructional materials, training of teachers and the full mandate given to school administrator and teachers to prepare their own development plans.

“The TEEP enhances community participation in the sense that NGO’s community leaders and even trival groups in the 22 provinces affected can contribute to the crafting of the overall development plans. In some cases they can even provide inputs on how to enhance the curriculum of the teaching standards” said Manhit.

According to (Philippine Daily Inquirer 1998) college dropout rises to Presidency, He Joseph “Erap” Marcelo Estrada as 13th president of the Republic of the Philippines. His day will be hectic with honors, including 21-gun salutes. When he arrives and departs the Barasoin Church in the morning and the Quirino Grandstand in the afternoon.
The Former movie star, who started as a bit player, wasn’t done to badly.

Before Estrada no other movie star has received the highest gift that the Filipinos can best. He’s the only college dropout, along with the country’s first President, Emilio Ejercito, could see him now. He disapprove of dropping out of his civil engineering course at the Mapuca Institute of Technology to enter the movies. In high school he had been busted from the ateneo for hitting an American classmate inside the toilet. The American provoke the Ejercito to use his Fists for bullying a Filipino boy.

According to (Woman’s today 1999) Educated dropout, The greatest plebian, Andres Bonifacio, completed only what we now call Grade Four. But Bonifacio was far from being an educated. In the Bodega of the foreign firm where hw worked as a storekeeper, Bonifacio put up a small library along with Emilio Jacinto and Pio Valenzuela. Jacinto owned all the law looks while Valenzuela, a physician, all the medical books. The Supremo’s collection, however, were more impressive- Noli Me Tangere; El Filibusterismo; Religion within the Reach of all. The Bible, Les Miserables, Wandering Jew; Lives of the president of the united states. Two volumes of the history of the French Revolution, International Law, Civil Code, Penal code, several volumes of the La Solidaridad and novels and works of other noted authors.

Bonifacio, who got insulted during the Tejerus convention for his lack of diploma, was Fluent enough in Spanish to translate Jose Rizal’s Mi Ultimu Adios in tagalog. He also wrote the head-stirring poem Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa and most probably, was well-versed in French and English. – Gerard A. Borrero Source: Kalayaan; March 1998.

According to (Malaya 2007) Dropouts Bill Gates back to Harvard for degree. Bill Gates attended to a bit of an finish business on Thursday. Gates who dropped out of Harvard and co founded Microsoft Corporation to become the world’s reaches person, stopped off at his former stamping grounds to collect an honorary law degree.

“We recognize the most illustrations member of the Harvard College Class of 1977 never to have graduated from Harvard University Provost Steven Hyman. It seems high time this his alma matter hand over the diploma”.

“I’ve been waiting for more than 30 years to say this, Dad, I always told you I’d come back and get my degree”. Gates is I told the crowd, which included his father, also named Bill.

“I’ll be changing my job next year, and will be nice to finally have a college degee on my resume”. Said Gates in a reference to his plan to shift full-time into philantrophy.

The lack of a degree didn’t slow Gate’ rise to the top echelons of business.

In 1980, Gates and his colleagues at Microsoft were carry enough to negotiate an agreement with International Business Machine corporation that gave the start up to fit ware company the right to license its operating system for a new generation of personal According to JP Loopez computers to other manufactures.

That arrangement ultimately turned the computer business on its ear. Shifting power from hardware manufactures to software programmers. Today, hundreds of companies manufacture hundred of thousands of brand-name personal computers each year, but more than 90 percent of those machines use Microsoft Windows operating system.

“Some incedent ; dropouts is still excel in some fields. Like those three articles, says that even dropouts. Like Joseph “Erap” Estrada, Andres Bonifacio and Microsoft founder Bill Gates are have their achievements. And they will do better if they continue there study , we can accept that not all the time we will give our time inside the campus, but theirs a lot of learning outside of it.

According to JP Lopez (Malaya Publication; 2009) Dropout Nabbed for rape. The National Bureau of investigation (NIB) has arrested an 18 years old school dropout who allegedly raped a 23 years old guest relations officer who was applying as an entertainer in Japan.

NBI director Federico Opinion Jr. identified the suspect as Gerry Nono, single, jobless, of 661 Pres. Quirino Avenue, Malate, Manila.

Investigation conducted by the NBI Anti-Child-Abuse, Discrimination and Exploitation Division headed by Lawyer Angelique V. Soniera disclosed that the past midnight last January 3, victim Eliza came from a drinking spree and arrived home drunk.

She was temporarily staying at the house of the suspect; whose father managed amnd recruited Eliza for a suppose job in Japan.

Shortly after entering her room to take a rest, The suspect allegedly barged into the room and eventually raped Eliza.

The following day; Eliza revealed her ordeal to a friend who advised her to seek NBI assistance. Nono was arrested on January 3 following the filling of the formal complaint.

Nono is detained at the NBI jail while charges of rape were filled against him before the Department of Justice.

“Dropout is not only for school, but also in societies. According to (Kimble, 1986) The decline and fall of societies has long been a favorite subject with historians. It is easy to see why it should be. In the First Place there have been a great many declines and falls. Arnold Foyubee, an English Historian, Lists twenty six in a study of History. These declines and falls of societies were only the major ones, which affected whole civilizations, not just a small communities.

In the second place, no historian has yet explained to the complete satisfaction of other historians why a particular society decline and fell. Not even Edward Gibbon managed to do this in his six-volume history. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Where the facts admit of various opinions, There’s never any shortage of people with opinions.

All societies sooner or later decline, even if they do not collapse. Thus; it’s natural for historians to look for symptoms of decline in the peoples they are writing about. This is was natural as it is for doctor to look for symptoms of old age or disease in a patient. Some modern historians are already writing as though our Western Society were in danger at-losing both its power and its will to survive.

According to (Universal Education) Young people who don’t complete high school face many more problem in later life than do people who graduate. While national leaders have demanded that schools, communities, and families make a major effort to retain students, the dropout rate remains high. A report from the Educational testing Service, One-third of a Nation: Rising Dropout Rates and Declining opportunities, warns little is being done to stem rising dropout rates and their economic costs.
This reports found: • From 1990 to 2000, the high school completion rate declined in all but seven states. In 10 states, it declined by 8 percentage points or more. • In high school completion rates, the United States has now slipped to 10th place in the world. • On average, only one certified councilor 15 available for each 500 students in high schools. And they have many assignment that leave little time to spend with students at of dropping out.
According to (Schargel, 2007) author of from at risk to Academic Excellence: What Successful Leaders DO, believe that the America’s School can improve and present examples of excellence.. educational leaders who firmly believe that all children can succeed. Schools that effectively meet the needs of non traditional leaders, and educational communities that don’t give on students who are at risk of dropping out. In his look, the author identify individual risk factors.-personal characteristics, habits, and then experience; family situations: and peer and school leaders can more directly influence.- school climate and culture, school connectedness, school safety, attendance, and school achievements.

According to (The associated Press Philadelphia) A program debuting this weeks to boost the number of college graduates in Philadelphia by encouraging people who dropped out to finish their degrees.

Economists say the city’s low percentage of college graduates, 21 percent, in the bottom quarter of the nation’s 100 largest cities, pose challenges for employers tring to find professional talent.

U.S. Census data show that 88,000 college dropouts ages 25-64 live in the city. A program called Graduate! Philadelphia, set to open Tuesday at a downtown shopping mall, hopes to encourage dropouts to go back to school.
The Program’s director Hadass Sheffer, said returning to college can be difficult because admission and financial-aid programs are designed with recent high school graduates in mind. College often keep their offices open in the day, making matters difficult for working adults. But an educated workforces is critical to the long term health of the local economy, said Sallie Glickman of the Philadelphia Workforce Investment Board.
“The employers will either get the human capital they need or they’ll leave” if we don’t get this right, we’re going to lose these job for good”.

By comparison, about 56 percent of seattle residents boast a college degree, along with 49 percent in washington, D.C. and 44 percent in Boston, according to census data.

According to the researchers in Greece, Ensuring the Dropout rate is as low error rates in the predictihy overall class outcomes but produces unacceptable error rates when one is considering the minority of class members of individuals. He and his colleagues have carried out a systematic study of the various analytical methods that had been tried to overcome this limitation and found theme all wanting.

The most obvious problem with analyzing skewed data sets is that most approaches remover the “outliers” and focus on the average. But, it’s the outliers at one end of the data who are the most likely to dropout.

The method could allow universities offering distance learning the predict which students are most likely to dropout of a course and so allow them to provide appropriate counseling; advice, and support to guide such students to a more informed decision regarding their educational future.

Related Studies
According to ( Boyle, 1995 ) the high dropout rate in instrumental music programs is a continuing concern for instrumental music teachers. Perhaps this was to be expected in previous years when many instrumental music programs began in the fourth or fifth grade of elementary school. Students in such programs often received only weekly lessons, either in “pull-out” programs from regular classroom instruction or before or after school. These weekly lessons may or may not have been supplemented with a weekly “band” experience. At best, these programs involve some disruption of children, teachers and parents schedules. Such a setting in combination with children’s developmental levels, their changing interests, and other curricular pressures as they moved to middle or junior high school may have accounted or much of the high dropout rate in the past.

According to (Bers, 2001) in his “College Student Retention Research”. Community colleges are often enrollment institutions that frequently take pride in being convenient to students, reducing impediments for application and registration, and understanding the multiple demands and obligations that impinge on student’s lives. One fall-out of this stance is that many students may enroll in the college but leave before the official census date. Literature about retention and persistence does not address this population of students. This exploratory study examines the demographic and educational characteristics of “disappearing students, explores their reasons for dropping courses, looks at return in subsequent terms, and suggest a complex array of factors-many outside the institution’s ability to affect-shaped student’s enrollment and retention decisions. Using quantitative data from the institution’s student information system, supplemented with qualitative data from a modest number of telephone interviews to hear student’s reasons for disappearing in their own words, researchers gained important insight about this population of students and ideas about what the college could or could not do to affect retention.

According to (Horn, 1998) Stop-outs or stay-outs? Undergraduates who leave in their first year. This report examines the educational experiences of student’s that leave college in their first year. It tracts the path of those who return (stop-outs) to determine where and when they enrolled. The report also compares the background and school experience of stop-outs with those who did not return (stay-outs) to college. The analysis reveals that nearly 30 percent of 1989-1990 beginning student’s left post-secondary education in their first year. Among stop-outs in the 4-year sector, 42 percent return to the same institution, and 58 percent transferred elsewhere. In the public 2-year sector, the opposite pattern occurred: 57 percent returned to the same institution, and 43 percent transferred. A majority of stop-outs transferred the 2-year sector.

According to (Hoyt, 2004) non-returning students are comprised of several students’ subpopulations including dropouts, stop-outs, opt-outs, and transfer-outs. All too often these student groups are not differentiated in retention studies. The current study profiles these student subpopulations, each with varied reasons for discontinuing their studies, and examines the implications of these differences for campus retention strategies.

According to (Polinsky, 2003) he ranked nine contributing factors in student decisions to leave college for student who obtained their goals, for those who did not obtain their goals and for all leavers. Among the factors were: difficulty juggling work and studies, money matters, lack of course relevance to future job/plans, and juggling family and studies.

According to (Rouche, 1997) at risk students are becoming the new majority on community college campuses. But what works with these students? What combinations of institutional resources and strategies best serve this growing population? The author document trend in college responses to at-risk students by showcasing elements of 12 successful community college programs.

According to (Tinto, 1993) the key to effective retention, he demonstrates is in strong commitment to quality education and the building of a strong sense of inclusive educational and social community on campus. This completely revise and expanded edition in corporate the explosion of recent research and policy reports on why students leave higher education. Incorporating data only now available, Tinto applies his theory of student departure to the experiences of minority, adult and graduate students, and to the situation commuting institutions and two-year colleges. He has revised his theory as well, giving new emphasis to the central importance of the classroom experienced and to the role of multiple college communities.

According to (Tom, 1999) the increase in competition for the college-age population and the declined in fiscal support for land- grant institutions have forced universities to consider attrition/retention issues. The college of business administrations at the metropolitan commuter university was interested in learning why students in good standing drop-out, the findings of survey study indicated that no single factor appeared to be the critical casual factor and that a number of variables may contribute incrementally to the decision to leave. Important to this study was the finding that a substantial number of the respondents of dropped out the previously suggesting that it maybe more accurate to the described students as stopping out rudder than dropping put. Pro active strategies that may be undertaken by the college are discuses.

According to (Natad, 1997) to his study entitled the causes of drop outs in the public elementary schools of Toledo city division.

The following verse the salient, findings derived from the gathered data of the study.

1. On the profile of the drop outs there were more males than females drop outs from the primary up to the intermediate.

2. The factors that caused the pupils factor, socio-economic factor, school factor and the culture factor.

3. The measures adopted to minimize drop outs were the use of punitive means through the power of the state and visiting, homes of pupils who are potential drop-outs.

Based on the findings a conclusion can be drawn that there are more male school. Leavers than the female ones.

The factors that were the main causes of pupils leaving school or drop-outs of school were the teacher-factor, pupil’s factor, socio economic factor, school factor and culture factor.

1. The school should have a committee composed of selected teachers and the guidance staff who could devote time to identify potential factors and should have some financing scheme which could help whose with financial difficulties.

2. There should be more home visits by the teachers to establish closer contact. With the parents so as to inform them to the progress of their children and the project “stay and Balik Aral”. Should be fully implemented so as to reduce drop-outs.

3. Teachers must be encourage to apply strategies which could the interest of the pupils and enhance achievements.

According to (Alinao , 1997) to his study focused on the three national high school of Mankayan covering the perceptions of 35 teachers regarding drop-out in Mankayan National High School , 35 teachers in Lepanto National High School ; and 15 teachers from Guinoang National High School.

Major Findings,

1. The Mankayan National High School teachers perceived the home factors having a slight affect to drop-outs with an age weighted mean of 2.28. Lepanto and Guinoang teachers perceived similarly with their respective average weighted mean of 2.38 and 2.57.

2. As to the affect of the educational factors drop-out the Mankayan, Lepanto, and Guinoang, teachers perceived uniquely a moderate effect with their respective average weighted mean of 2.59, 2.72 and 2.71.

3. The comparison showed no significant difference on the perception of hypothesis since the computed T-value of 0.04 is lesser than the tabular value 3.35. Therefore, hypothesis is accepted.

4. Regarding the measures to counteract contributing factors to drop-out. These three national high school teachers a shown b their respective average weighted mean of 3.16, 3.01 and 2.99 respectively.

5. The problems encountered were considered moderately serious with the average weighted mean of 2.61; 3.08 and 3.16 respectively.

6. Priority of implication to drop-out problem namely a.) It primarily affects the economy; b) decrease professionals; c.)It affects quality of educations; d.) Decreases professional growth; and e.) Exposure of familiar profile.

Based on the above findings, the following conclusions are drawn:

1. The three national high schools teachers uniquely concluded that home factors create slight on drop-out problems. 2. Likewise environment factors create a slight effect on drop-out problems. 3. Effect of educational factors varies namely. For Mankayan teachers they came with slight effect while Lepanto and Guinoang teachers perceived a moderate affect of environment factors to drop-out problems. 4. The control measures moderately control the drop-out problems. 5. The problems encountered in counteracting drop-out problems are generally made rate among the three high schools. 6. The drop-out problems is both perennial and actual problems that to certain deteriorates Philippine economy and degrades quality of Philippine educations.

According to (Nagen, 1995) to her study entitled “drop-outs and absenteeism in Baguio central district; Baguio city, 1994, 1995”. Looked into the underlying causes of drop-outs absenteeism in these schools of Baguio central districts, Baguio city:

Findings:

1. Most the drop-outs/absentees were males; overages, come from big families with low income. 2. There were 37 drop-outs/absents of Baguio central districts. Of this number, 13 were from Sto. Thomas elementary school; 12 from Dontogan Elementary School. 3. There were six common causes of drop-outs/absenteeism. These were; poverty, broken, home, separation of husband and wife , bad environment; lack of parental guidance , and absence of love and belongingness. 4. Twelve measures were proposed to minimize drop-outs/absenteeism in the three schools covered by this investigation.

Conclusions

1. Most drop-outs/absentees were; males, overage and care low income families. 2. There were 37 drop-outs in the three schools of Baguio Central Districts during the school year 1994-1995. 3. There were six common causes of dropping out/absenteeism other causes were identified by the three groups of teachers. 4. Twelve measures were proposed to minimize drop-out/absenteeism.

According to (Kollars, 2008) California moves toward honest drop point numbers. A new high school dropout report released Wednesday shows significantly higher rates of students leaving public school in California than reported in previous years.
The difference is due to or more accurate system for keeping track pf students, said states superintendent of instruction Jack O’Connell. Under the system, students were given a unique identification number that enabled the state better trade where about in the education system.
In the past, dropout counts were self-reported by schools and districts. In many places, the figures were considered serious undercounts, especially when compared with the rates of freshmen who actually graduated with their classes four years later.
O’Connell said the new system was designed to make better sense of transfers. When students left schools counted them as transfers not dropouts without checking if the students actually re-enrolled elsewhere.
With new students tracking system, the state was able to determine whether such transfers place.
If not, such students were deemed” lost transfers “and counted as dropout. They were a big factor in the uptick in dropout rates.
According to ( Shriberg, 2008) high-states testing and dropout rates. Dropout rates and high-states testing receive their share of media attention, but likely connection between the two. Is rarely discussed outside of education circle yet much recent research and anecdotal evidence suggest at least a correlation between high-states testing of the sort mandated by the no child left behind act (NCLB) and dropout rates. Students, especially those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, appear to be dropping out of school earlier and in much greater numbers than previously believed, and high-states testing may be cause. Moreover, school over estimate graduation rates, and NCLB actually provides incentives for school to encourage students, particularly students expected to perform poorly; either to dropout or transfer before taking their proficiency exams.
According to ( Mangco, 1996 ) the salient findings is this investigation were presented in the second paragraph of 8.1,
“The findings disclosed on the major causes and alarming incidence of school dropouts and failures. To all teachers, especially the fifth grade teachers who are tasked to initiate the intermediate instruction of elementary school children.”
And on the basis of these, it is safe to conclude that there were twelve elementary schools in the municipality of Naval, Biliran did have a dropout rate as high as 18, 64 percent and as low as 4.76 percent except for one school, and a failure rate as high as 16 percent and as low as 1.95 percent among the fifth grades. Causes for dropouts and failure among pupils range from psychological teacher to social to scholastic which could be prevented by the measures suggested by the teachers.
A tactical plan is designed for preventing future occurrences of dropouts and failures. Among elementary pupils is hereby recommended.
According to (Estenor, 1997) in his study attempted to determine the causes of dropouts in the public elementary school of the four south districts of Cebu Division as basis for proposing measures to curb the dropout rate.
The following were the salient findings of this study; 1. Most of the dropouts were males from nine to four teen years old; they come from poor homes, a few assumed leadership roles, are included to sports and athletics and some activity participated in school activities. 2. Other minor causes are broken homes and habitual absenteeism 3. Among the measure undertaken to curtail dropouts is the development of a strong school; parent relations through the home-room PTA and school PTCA. Based on the findings of the study, it is safe to conclude that male pupil about the age of puberty and coming from poor families are potential school leavers, Furthermore, there is a need of closer relationship between the teachers and the parents; likewise coaching class for show learners and or gazing interesting sports, science and health shows may keep them in school.

Chapter III This chapter content of research method used, sampling scheme, instrumental used, data gathering, description of respondents and statistical treatment of data.

Research Method used The main type of research used in this study was the descriptive method studies not only practical information that can be used to justify or improved the immediate situation. Research requires factual information that is accurate. Descriptive studies describe systematically a situation or area of interest factually and accurately.
Since the present study ort investigation was concerned with the affecting the decreasing of students in college of education in The National Teachers College. The descriptive method of research was the most appropriate method used.

Sampling Scheme The researcher made used of the purposive sampling to identifies the prospected persons who are targeted to be involved in the study. It is consist of sso selected students, and 20 faculty teachers in the college of education in NTC Manila. The sampling is called deliberate sampling where the samples are selected based on the decision or judgment of researcher or who best quality to answer the objectives of the study.

Description of respondents The researchers were selected 3rd year respondents of students from any sections and 20 selected students from 4yr.

Problem no.1. The profile of student’s respondent according to the following variables.
Table 1 fined figure 1 present the distribution of respondents according to sex.
|Sex |Frequency |Percentage |
|Male |22 |44% |
|Female |28 |56% |
|total |50 |100% |

Table 1 shows the profile of so selected students of 3rd year I college of education, NTC Manila In which 22 or 44% or they are male while 28 or 56% are female. Majority of respondents are female students than male students.

Table 2 and figure 2 present the distribution of respondents according to age.
Table 2
Percentage distribution of respondents according to age
|Age |Frequency |Percentage |
|Above-21 |8 |16% |
|19-20 |28 |56% |
|17-18 |14 |28% |
|Total |50 |100% |

Table 2 present profiles of the respondents in terms of age. It is shall in the table that 17 up to 21 and above are the ages of respondents, in ages 21_above has the lowest frequency of 8 or 16%. In age 17 and18 which is the second to the highest frequency of 14 or 28%, the respondents of age 19 and 20 has highest frequency of 28 or 56%. The results shows that majority of the respondents are 17-20 and above of age.

Table 3 and figure 3 presents the distribution of respondents according to the number of family members.
Table 3
Percentage distribution of respondents according to the member of family members
|Family sizes |Frequency |Percentage |
|Above-12 |0 |0% |
|11-12 |16 |32% |
|8-5 |26 |52% |
|4-2 |8 |16% |
|Total |50 |100% |

Table 3 present the profile of the respondents in terms of family sizes. In the family sizes of 8 and 5 has the highest frequency of 26 or 52%, in the family sizes of 11 and 9 which is the second d highest frequency of 16 or 32%. In the family sizes of 4 and 2 is the third to the highest frequency of 8 or 16%. The results of this study shows that majority of the respondents are 8 and of family status.

Table 4 and figure 4 present the distribution of respondents according to presents occupational status.

Table 4
Percentage distribution of respondents by parent’s occupational status
|MOTHER |Frequency |Percentage |
|House wife |26 |52% |
|Store keeper |2 |4% |
|Vendor |6 |12% |
|Factory worker |10 |20% |
|Service crew |0 |0% |
|Others |16 |32% |
|Total |50 |100% |

|FATHER |Frequency |Percentage |
|Laborer |16 |32% |
|Factory worker |10 |20% |
|Porter |0 |0% |
|Vendor |8 |16% |
|Driver |7 |14% |
|Others |28 |56% |
|Total |50 |100% |

Table 4 presents the profile of the respondents in terms of parent’s occupational status. It is shown in the table that the mother who is house wife has highest frequency of 26 or 52%, while the father who is laborer has the highest frequency of 16 or 32% next occupational of mother listed which is factory worker has the frequency of 10 or 20% while in fathers occupational which is factory worker is second with the frequency of 6 or 12%, while in father occupational are driver with the frequency of 7 or 14%, majority of the respondents are having parents, in which the mother staying at home or house keeper while the father are laborer.

Instrumentation
The researcher made use or the questionnaires, as an instrument together necessary data that are needed in this study, it is a set of questions used for obtaining statistically useful, relevant, or personal information from individuals it is made of written or printed question often with spaces for answers. It is come with close type of question which provides a list of choices among enumerated alternatives answers to the specific question raised in the study.
The questionnaire was given to 10 students to be prepared to find out if the questionnaire clear and easy to understand.

Data gathering procedure
The researchers seek the advice of their mentor regarding the title of the study. When the title was finalized after a few modifications; the researcher proceeded in preparing the letter of permission. The letter of permission, which was addressed to the dean of college of education NTC Manila, was given personally by the researchers to the respondents to gather the relevant data. It took the researcher within a few days to accumulate the entire questionnaire from the respondents,
After accumulating the responses were tailed and computed. Then the interpretation of data was done right away.

Bibliography www.google.com www.yahoo.com www.wikipedia NTC library

Natad, Andres.”The Causes of Drpo-outs in the Public ary Schools of Toledo City Division: Maesures For curtailimng the same .

Unpublished
Boyle, David. “Reasons for Student Dropouts in Instrumental Music”

Bers, T.H. “College Student Retention Reseach”

Coley, R. “Undergraduates who leave college in their first year”

Horn. L. “A psychological process of college student Drop-out”

Hoyt, J. E. “Differences between drop-outs, stop-outs

MashBurn, A.J. “A psychological process of college student Drop-out”

Polinsky: T. L. “journal of college student Retentions”

Roueche, J. E. “Between a rock and a hard Place; The at-risk student in the open-door college”.

Thesis
Nagen, Andrea.” Drop-outs AND absenteeism in Baquio Central District, Baquio City, 1994-1995”

Alinao, Felisisima “Drop-outs in the three National High Schools of Mankayan District 1995-1996”

1. Mangco. Mercedes “The profile and cause of dropouts failures of the fifth grade pupil in the municipality of Naval, division of Biliran: preventive measures proposed 1996 estenor

Personal background

Name: Dollisen Jayson DV
Nickname: Jayson
Age: 19
Birthday: February 18, 1991
Birthplace: Caint, Rizal
Sex: male
Height: 5’12
Religion: Roman Catholic
Father’s name: Vicente Dollisen
Mother’s name: Simeona Dollisen

Educational Background
College: The National Teachers College
Secondary: Francisco P. Felix Memorial Nat’l High School

THE NATIONAL TEACHERS COLLEGE
March 12, 2010

Dear Madam: In partial fulfillment of the requirement in ENGLISH 2 : I student of the College of Education of The National Teachers College would like to conduct an intervention regarding the study about entitled “Factors Affecting Dropouts in perception of the Students in The National Teachers College”. The objective of the intervention is to let the students and teachers know the result of the study. In this connection; may I ask your permission to conduct an intervention for the above purpose. I am hoping for your positive response regarding this matter. Thank you very much!

Very truly yours,
Jayson D. Dollisen
Student Researcher

-----------------------
Study factors Affecting dropouts in perceptions of the students as perceived by the college of Education in The National Teachers College.

Tallying and interpreting data using statistical treatment using Frequency, Percentage and Ranked

Knowing the possible solutions of treatment on how to prevent or minimize the Population or drop-outs in the National Teachers College

Bibliography: Thesis Nagen, Andrea.” Drop-outs AND absenteeism in Baquio Central District, Baquio City, 1994-1995” Birthday: February 18, 1991 Birthplace: Caint, Rizal THE NATIONAL TEACHERS COLLEGE March 12, 2010

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