Factors Affecting Academic Performance

Topics: Logic, Reasoning, Deductive reasoning Pages: 3 (1020 words) Published: September 8, 2013
* LOGIC
Logic has two meanings: first, it describes the use of valid reasoning where it is used in most intellectual activities, including philosophy and science, or, second, it describes the study of modes of reasoning (those that are valid, and those that are fallacious). It is primarily studied in the disciplines of philosophy, mathematics, semantics, and computer science. It examines general forms that arguments may take. In mathematics, it is the study of valid inferences within some formal language. Logic is also studied in argumentation theory. Logic was established as a formal discipline by Aristotle, who gave it a fundamental place in philosophy. The study of logic was part of the classical trivium, which also included grammar and rhetoric. In the East, logic was developed by Buddhists and Jains. Logic is often divided into three parts, inductive reasoning, abductive reasoning, and deductive reasoning. * 3 MAIN DIVISIONS OF LOGIC

Inductive reasoning, also known as induction or informally "bottom-up" logic,is a kind of reasoning that constructs or evaluates general propositions that are derived from specific examples. Inductive reasoning contrasts with deductive reasoning, in which specific examples are derived from general propositions. Abduction or Abductive reasoning is a form of logical inference that goes from observation to a hypothesis that accounts for the reliable data (observation) and seeks to explain relevant evidence. The American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce (1839–1914) first introduced the term as "guessing".Peirce said that to abduce a hypothetical explanation  from an observed surprising circumstance  is to surmise that  may be true because then  would be a matter of course. Thus, to abduce  from  involves determining that  is sufficient (or nearly sufficient), but not necessary, for . For example, the lawn is wet. But if it rained last night, then it would be unsurprising that the lawn is wet. Therefore, by abductive...
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