To investigate the effect of some factor affecting pulse rate Aim
TO investigate how exercise affects the pulse rate. To do this, we took our normal pulse rate and then compared it with the pulse rate after exercise (walking). We kept all other factors constant so as to study the effect of exercise on pulse rate. Introduction
Our heart is a muscle. It's located a little to the left of the middle of our chest, and it's about the size of our fist. There are lots of muscles all over our body — in our arms, in our legs, in our back etc. But the heart muscle is special because of what it does. The heart sends blood around our body. The blood provides our body with the oxygen and nutrients it needs. It also carries away waste. Our heart is sort of like a pump or two pumps in one. The right side of our heart receives blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs. The left side of the heart does the exact opposite: It receives blood from the lungs and pumps it out to the body. Every time when blood travels through heart it produces a sound called lub-dub. Lub happens when the upper chambers of the heart contract to squeeze the blood downward into the ventricles. A dub happens when the lower chambers contract. Every time the lower chambers of the heart contract, the blood in the left ventricle rushes upward into the aorta. It quickly speeds away from the heart causing the aorta to expand as it passes. As the blood races along, some of it pushes into the first artery that branches off from the aorta. Some of the blood enters the next artery. The blood from each contraction of the heart produces a bulge in the artery. This bulge of the arteries is called a pulse. One pulse is equal to one Heartbeat. The rate at which heart beats is called pulse rate. It can be varied by various factors such as:- Body Build and Size. A short, fat person may have a higher rate than a tall, slender person. The larger the size, the slower the rate. For example, a grizzly bear has a heart rate of about 30 beats a minute while a hummingbird’s is about 200 beats per minute. Gender: a woman's heart rate is generally faster than a man's. Age: generally the younger a person is, the faster the heart rate. An infant's heart rate is about 120 beats per minute; a child's is around 100; an adult's is between 70 and 80; an elderly person generally hovers in the 60s. Exercise and Muscular Activity. An increase in pulse rate will occur with increased activity to meet increased oxygen and nutrient demands. A regular aerobic exercise program can lower the resting pulse. A person, who exercises a great deal, such as an athlete, will develop bradycardia that is a normal, health condition. The body slows the heartbeat to compensate for the greater volume of blood pumped with each beat. Emotional Status. Fear, anger, and anxiety will all increase the pulse rate. Hormones: influence heart rate, especially epinephrine, norepinephrine, and thyroid hormones, all of which can increase the rate. Pathology: certain diseases affect heart rate, causing it either to slow or to race. Medications and drugs: Stimulants will increase the pulse rate; depressants will decrease the pulse rate. For example, Digitalis slows the rate, while epinephrine (Adrenalin) increases it. Caffeine can also cause palpitations or extra beats. Blood Pressure. As the blood pressure decreases, the pulse will frequently increase. Elevated Body Temperature. The pulse increases approximately 10 beats per minute for every 1 F (0.56º C) increase in body temperature. These conditions cause a temporary increase in the heartbeat and pulse. Pain. When the patient is in pain, the pulse rate will increase. Hypothesis
I think that exercise will vary the pulse rate because when we are working out or exercising, oxygen is released from our body more rapidly as the cells metabolize and use up the oxygen quicker, and so our body requires a greater amount of oxygen. Due to which our heart rate...
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