In order to maximizing the effectiveness of production processes and meeting employee needs & desires Facility layout and design plays a key role in business's overall operations. It entails in determining the placement off departments, work group within the departments, workstations, machines & stock holding points within a production facility.
“The physical arrangement of everything needed for the product or service, including machines, personnel, raw materials, and finished goods. The criteria for a good layout necessarily relate to people (personnel and customers), materials (raw, finished, and in process), machines, and their interactions. “- Howard J. Weiss and Mark E. Gershon
FACTORS IN DETERMINING LAYOUT & DESIGN:
There are many operational factors which need to consider while construction or renovation of a facility for maximum layout effectiveness. It includes: * Ease of future expansion or change:
Facilities should be designed so that they can be easily expanded or adjusted to meet changing production needs.
* Flow of movement:
The facility design should reflect recognition of the importance of smooth process flow. The flow need not be a straight line. Parallel flows, U-shaped patterns, or even a zig-zag that ends up with the finished product back at the shipping and receiving bays can be functional. However, backtracking is to be avoided in whatever pattern is chosen. * Materials handling:
It is essential to ensure the facility layout makes possible to handle materials (products, equipment, containers, etc.). It should be in an orderly, efficient—and preferably simple—manner. * Output needs:
The facility should be laid out in a way that is conducive to helping the business meet its production needs. * Space utilization:
This aspect of facility design includes everything from making sure that traffic lanes are wide enough to making certain that inventory storage warehouses or rooms utilize as much vertical space as possible. * Shipping and receiving:
Some business organization leaves ample room for this aspect of operations.
* Ease of communication and support:
Facilities should be laid out so that communication within various areas of the business and interactions with vendors and customers can be done in an easy and effective manner. Similarly, support areas should be stationed in areas that help them to serve operating areas. * Impact on employee morale and job satisfaction:
Since countless studies have indicated that employee morale has a major impact on productivity, & therefore managers should pay attention to this factor. There are some ways layout design can increase morale are obvious, such as providing for light-colored walls, windows, space. Other ways are less obvious and not directly related to the production process like a cafeteria or even a gymnasium in the facility design. * Promotional value:
Customers, vendors, investors, etc., visits the offices often. It is necessary to make sure that the facility layout is an attractive one that further burnishes the company's reputation. Design factors that can influence the degree of attractiveness of a facility include not only the design of the production area itself, but the impact that it has on, for instance, ease of fulfilling maintenance/cleaning tasks. * Safety:
The facility layout should enable the business to effectively operate in accordance with Occupational Safety and Health Association guidelines and other legal restrictions. FACILITY LAYOUT AT MCDONALDS
McDonald's Corporation is one of the world's largest chains of hamburger fast food restaurants, serving nearly 58 million customers daily. It is worldwide renowned for the high degree of respect for the local customs and culture. It started as a drive-in-restaurant in the late 1940’s. In June 1967, McDonald’s opened its first restaurant outside U.S in Canada McDonald’s...
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