COM5407.E1 Nonverbal Communication
1. Discuss how emotions are expressed through facial expressions. Emotion is one of the most controversial topics in psychology, a source of intense discussion and disagreement from the earliest philosophers and other thinkers to the present day. Most psychologists can probably agree on a description of emotion or what phenomena to include in a discussion of emotion. The list of these parts of emotion is called the components of emotion. These components are distinguished based on physiological or psychological factors and include emotion faces, emotion elicitors, and emotion neural processes. Neither emotion nor their expressions are concepts universally embraced by psychologists. The term expression implies the existence of something that is expressed. The behaviors referenced by expression are part of an organized emotional response, and thus, the term expression captures the behaviors' role less adequately than a reference to it as an aspect of the emotion reaction. In addition, facial expressions have primarily a communicative function and convey something about intentions or internal state, and I find the connotation of the word expression useful. Facial expressions and emotions are directly linked to each other. Many times, we subconsciously exhibit looks and expressions on our faces that are directly linked to how we are feeling at the time. Though people regularly recognize many distinct emotions, for the most part, research studies have been limited to six basic categories and they are happiness, surprise, sadness, anger, fear, and disgust. The reason for this is grounded in the assumption that only these six categories are differentially represented by our cognitive and social systems. (Knapp, Hall & Horgan, 2014, p.261) 2. Discuss pupil dilation and constriction.
Early research determined that pupil dilation and interest in the stimulus are linked. Researchers currently utilize video-based eye-tracking tools that measure where people are looking, how long they are looking at something, and how their pupils respond to what they are looking at and doing. People’s pupils can dilate and constrict, and these eye movements signal their interest level, attitudes, memory, decision-making processes, as well as various disorders. When people are intrigued by or interested in something, they tend to look harder and focus deeper in on that particular thing. There has been so much more additional research on this topic, and many different results and ideas have been added to the causes and reasoning behind pupil dilation and constriction. Our pupils may dilate or constrict based on our attitudes. Pupils dilate for positive attitudes and constrict for negative ones. This can even include times when we receive compliments or praise for doing a good job. Our pupils dilate for excitement and things that feel good to us. Another study found that recognition and memory were also linked to the change in pupil size. If people saw or recognized something they have seen before, or something that brings back a fond memory, pupils tend to dilate. We link certain events to certain stimuli and research showed that this linkage created a change in eye size. Eyes may also dilate when we have reached a decision or how we are processing information. When we are in deep thought or going through the process of trying to make a difficult decision, our eyes may dilate or constrict depending on our emotions and feelings toward that particular decision or topic we are thinking over. Research shows that many different things can cause these variations in pupil size. It is hard to narrow it down to just a few things because there are so many and people react differently in every situation. Tightening muscles anywhere on the body, anticipation of a loud noise, drugs, eyelid closure, and mental effort all alter pupil size. While...
References: Fisher, J. (2001). Knowing body language saves embarrassment and improves understanding and clarity. Retrieved from http://www.livingbetter.org/livingbetter/articles/bodylanguage.htm
Givens, J. (2013). Deception Cue. Retrieved from http://center-for-nonverbal-studies.org/deceive.htm
Knapp, M. L., Hall, J. A., & Horgan, T. G. (2014) Nonverbal Communication in Human Interaction. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
O’neil, D. (2009). Hidden Aspects of Communication. Retrieved from http://anthro.palomar.edu/language/language_6.htm
Pfeuffer, K., Vidal, M., Turner, J., Bulling, A., & Gellersen, H. (2013). Pursuit Calibration: Making Gaze Calibration Less Tedious and More Flexible. Retrieved from http://www.d2.mpi-inf.mpg.de/content/pursuit-calibration-making-gaze-calibration-less-tedious-and-more-flexible
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