Fable

Topics: Fable, Aesop's Fables, Aesop Pages: 55 (13785 words) Published: May 2, 2015
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, SCIENCE, YOUTH AND SPORTS OF UKRAINE IVAN FRANKO NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF LVIV
ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

LINGUISTIC PECULARITIES OF ENGLISH-AMERICAN FABLE

Graduation paper
presented by
Patskal Natalia
a fifth year student
of the English department

SUPERVISED BY
N. Nera
a lecturer
of the English department

Lviv 2012

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction……………………………………………………………………………...3 Part I. Theoretical background of fable as a genre ………………………………….6 1.1. Genre of fable in literature and its history…………………………………………..6 1.2. Form and content of fables.......................................................................................11 1.3. The main characteristics of fables ………………………………………………...15 1.4. History of English and American fable……………………………………………18

Part II. Means of actualizing irony in English-American fable of 18th and 19th centuries …………………………………………………………………………… 2.1. Satirical irony of English-American fables of 18 century……………….……24 2.2. Humorous irony of English – American fables of 19 century ……………….36 2.3. Comparative table of English – American fables of 18-19 century ………….45

Conclusions…………………………………………………………………………….48 Summary ……………………………………………………………………………….52 References ………………………………………………………………….……….. 53

Introduction
Fable is a short tale that illustrates universal truth, and is one of the simplest of narratives. It sketches a setting, describes an action, and shows the results. It often involves a characters who face a moral dilemma, or make a questionable decision and then suffer from the consequences. A fable generally relates a single, simple, consistent action, without extraneous detail or distracting circumstances [19; 113-131]. Fables have been used in a variety of social contexts, such as pedagogical, therapeutic or religious, usually for the purpose of teaching or reaffirming a moral value. The close study of the internal structure of such type of texts is therefore a valuable aid to teachers, psychologists and related professionals in their current practices. Many scholars differentiate various approaches to the study of nature of fable. Some of them are the following ones: 1) Ontological, in the course of which scientists are trying to determine: “What is fable?” 2) Gnoseological, in the course of which the question is asked: “For what it is?” 3) Psycholinguistic, representatives of which intend to find the answer: “How fable affects the reader?” 4) Structurally- semantic, is trying to find the solution to the question: "How the text of the fable acquires connectivity, integrity and internal unity?" The aim of the diploma paper is to study thoroughly English-American fable, demonstrate its linguistic peculiarities; to highlight the main features of fable, its peculiarities and the differences between fable, parable; to determine linguistic peculiarities of the fable on the basis of English- American fables; to carry out structurally - semantic and functionally -stylistic analysis of irony as the dominant means of the fable; Realization of the tasks has been accomplished with the help of the following methods: componential analysis(attempts to reduce meaning to its smallest components); contextual analysis(method of observing words in actual speech, as well as their influence on one another in speech ); semantic analysis ( the process of relating syntactic structures, from the levels of phrases, clauses, sentences and paragraphs to the level of the writing as a whole, to their language-independent meanings. It also involves removing features specific to particular linguistic and cultural contexts, to the extent that such a project is possible. The elements of idiom and figurative speech, being cultural, are often also converted into relatively invariant meanings in semantic analysis.) descriptive method which involved gathering information about the history of fables and creative activities, examining it...


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