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Topics: Roman Empire, Ancient Rome, Ancient Greece / Pages: 21 (5424 words) / Published: Mar 19th, 2015
336-323 B.C.E.
King of the Ancient Greek Kingdom of Macedon
Tutored by the philosopher Aristotle until the age 16
Succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of 20
Spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Asia
Had created one of the largest empires in the ancient world by the age of thirty
Overthrew the Persian king Darius III and conquered the entirety of the First Persian Empire
Undefeated in battle and considered one of history’s most successful military commanders
Conquests and spread of culture lead to the Hellenistic Age

City on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt founded by Alexander the Great
Became the Hellenistic kingdom of the Ptolemies
Contained the famous Library and the Museum, a center for leading scientific and literary figures
Merchants engaged in trade with areas bordering the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean

Angkor Wat
First a Hindu then a Buddhist temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world
Built by the Khmer King Suryavaman II in the early 12th century in the capital of the Khmer Empire
Used as a state temple and a mausoleum
Dedicated to Vishnu
Best preserved temple at the site
A significant religious center since its foundation

A conduit, either elevated or underground, that used gravity to carry water from a source to a location – usually a city – that needed it
Romans built many of these in a period of substantial urbanization
Well-built structures made of large cut stones closely fitted and held together by a cement-like mortar
Water flowed into a reservoir when it reached the outskirts of the city and was stored
The water flowed into pipes and was distributed around the city

3000 C.E.
Ancient Indian treatise on government
Written by Kautilya, a crafty elderly Brahmin
Advisor of Chandragupta, founder of the Mauryan empire
Presents schemes for enforcing and increasing the collection of tax revenues
Prescribes the use of spies
Coldly pragmatic guide to political success and survival
“My enemy’s enemy is my friend”

273-232 B.C.E.
Third ruler of the Mauryan Empire in India
Engaged in military campaigns that extended the boundaries of the empire
Converted to Buddhism and preached nonviolence, morality, moderation, and religious tolerance after being overwhelmed by the brutality of his victories
Broadcasted his precepts on inscribed stones and pillars, the earliest surviving Indian writing

31 B.C.E. – 41 C.E.
Honorific name of Octavian
Founder of the Roman Principate
Military dictatorship that replaced the failing rule of the Roman Senate
Laid groundwork for several centuries of stability and prosperity in the Roman Empire after defeating his rivals
Patience and intuitive grasp of human nature enabled him to manipulate all the groups in Roman society
Allied himself with the equites
Felt it was important to appeal to Republican traditions and conceal the source and extent of his power

Most important work of Indian sacred literature
Dialogue between the great warrior Arjuna and the god Krishna on duty and the fate of the spirit
Attempts to depict the nature of diety by emphasizing the diversity and multiplicity of the god when, in reality, a higher unity lies behind these things
Metaphor for Indian civilization and how its diversity is united by shared views and values
Offers an attractive resolution to the tension in Indian civilization
Popular in Hinduism

Mahayana Buddhist Temple in Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia
Consists of six square platforms topped by three circular platforms
Decorated with 2672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues
The world’s largest Buddhist temple
The greatest Buddhist monuments in the world
Built in the 9th century during the reign of the Sailendra Dynasty
Demonstrates the influence of Gupta art that reflects India’s influence on the region
Uniquely Indonesian, seen by the indigenous concepts such as ancestor worship
Both a shrine to the Lord Buddha and a place for Buddhist pilgrimage

Highest social class in Indian society compromised of priests and scholars
Class system was justified by the creation story of Purusha
Embodiment of intellect and knowledge
Taught about reincarnation and how it was connected to the class system
Underlying message of their teachings was that the only way to improve your situation is to perform your duties and then be born into a higher class
Duties included performing prayers, rituals, and sacrifices

An Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama
Renounced his wealth and social position
Became a wandering ascetic before realizing he had to adhere to the “Middle Path” of moderation
After becoming “enlightened”, he enunciated the principles of Buddhism
Doctrine evolved and spread throughout India and to Southeast, East, and Central Asia
Left no final instructions and urged his disciples to “be their own lamp”

Ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in China
Means “perpetual peace”
Local officials were ordered to send a certain number of promising students from their districts each year to the school located here
Settled since the Neolithic times
One of the largest and most populous cities in the world at its peak

312 – 337 C.E.
Roman emperor
After reuniting the Roman Empire, he moved the capital to Constantinople and made Christianity a favored religion
The conversion of Constantine and the transfer of the imperial capital are often seen at the end of Roman history
Claimed he had seen a cross superimposed on the sun before the battle at MIlvian Bridge near Rome
Issued the Edict of Milan, ending the persecution of Christianity and guaranteeing freedom to worship to Christians and all others

550-530 B.C.E.
Founder of the Achaemenid Persian Empire
Largest empire the world had yet seen
Conquered Media, Lydia, and Babylon
Respected the customs and religions of the land he conquered
Employed Persians and Medes in his administration in staraps
Proclaimed what has been identified to be the oldest declaration of human rights
Died in battle

Darius I
521-486 B.C.E.
Third ruler of the Persian Empire
Crushed the widespread initial resistance to his rule and gave all major government posts to Persians rather than to Medes
Established a system of provinces and tribute, began construction of Persepolis, and expanded the Persian control in the east and west
Promoted the development of maritime routes
Dispatched a fleet to explore the waters from the Indus Delta to the Red Sea and completed a canal linking the Red Sea with the Nile

System of government in which all “citizens” (however defined) have equal political and legal rights, privileges, and protections, as in the Greek city-state Athens in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E.
Exercise of political power by all free adult males in Greece
System in Greek comprised of three separate institutions:
A sovereign governing body that wrote laws and dictated foreign policy (ekklesia)
A council of representatives from the ten Athenian tribes (boule)
The popular courts in which citizens argued cases before a group of lottery-selected jurors (dikasteria)

The general physical type of some or all of the people of South Asia
Used in biological anthropology for many people from this region, without regard necessarily to skin tone
Languages that the Dasas spoke
Speech still prevails in the south
Hinduism incorporates elements drawn from these cultures of the south
I.E., an emphasis on intense devotion to the deity and the prominence of fertility rituals

In ancient Italy, prosperous landowners second in wealth and status to the senatorial aristocracy
Roman emperors allied with this group to counter-balance the influence of the old aristocracy and used these people to staff the imperial civil service
Competent and self-assured individuals who became the core of a new, paid civil service

An early complex society in Southeast Asia between the first and sixth centuries C.E.
Was centered in the rich rice-growing region of southern Vietnam
Controlled the passage of trade across the Malaysian isthmus
Rulers mobilized large numbers of laborers to dig irrigation channels and prevent destructive floods
Stockpiled food and provided security for those engaged in this trade in return for custom duties and other fees
Built walled cities, palaces, archives, systems of taxation, and state-organized agriculture
Declined in the sixth century

The throne name of Liu Bang
One of the rebel leaders who brought down the Qin and founded the Han dynasty in 202 B.C.E.
Came from a modest background and had peasant qualities
Was fond of drinks, had blunt speech, and was easy mannered
Courted popularity and consolidated their rule by denouncing the harshness of the Qin and renouncing many Qin laws
Maintained many Legalist-inspired institutions of the Qin to control far-flung territories and diverse populations
Kept costs down to reduce taxes and undertook measures to improve the state of agriculture
Reverted to the traditional feudal grants the Qin had abolished
Adopted a policy of appeasing the Xiongnu to prevent any battles

In China, the class of prosperous families
Next in wealth below the rural aristocrats, from which the emperors drew their administrative personnel
Respected for their education and expertise
Became a privileged group and made the government more efficient and responsive than in the past
Also denotes the class of land-holding families in England below the aristocracy
Shared a common Confucian culture or ideology
Exempt from taxes and compulsory military and labor services
Led comfortable lives by the standards
Sons had distinct advantages in obtaining a requisite education in classical texts
Depended on for day-to-day administration of their far-flung territories

Gupta Empire
320 – 550 C.E.
A powerful Indian state based, like its Mauryan predecessors, on a capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley
Controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of military force and its prestige as a center of sophisticated culture
Established peace and prosperity under strong leadership and enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavors
Known as the Golden Age of India
Conquered about twenty one kingdoms
Cultural creativity included magnificent architecture, sculptures, and paintings
Science and political administration reached new heights
Strong trade ties made the region an important cultural center and set the reign up as a base that would influence nearby kingdoms
Earliest available Indian epics were written around this period
Women of the time had very limited rights

Founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang
Chinese dynasty that governed the empire for more than four centuries
Created the machinery and ideology of imperial government that would prevail for two millennia
Emperor Wu went on the offensive against the nomads, extended Chinese control in the northwest, and began to use Confucian scholars as government officials
The family, with its strict hierarchy, roles for each member, and values of deference and obedience, prepared citizens for their obligations to the states
Saw major intellectual and technological developments, as well as the arrival of Buddhism in China
Considered a golden age in Chinese history
Helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road
Was an age of economic prosperity and saw a significant growth of the money economy

Hellenistic Age
323 – 30 B.C.E.
Greek culture spread across western Asia and northeastern Africa after the conquests of Alexander the Great
Ended with the fall of the major kingdom to Rome
Greek cultural influence persisted until the spread of Islam in the seventh century C.E.
Period of large kingdoms with heterogeneous populations, great cities, powerful rulers, pervasive bureaucracies, and vast disparities in wealth
Cosmopolitian age of long-distance trade and communications
Saw the rise of new institutions like libraries and universities, new kinds of scholarship and science, and the cultivation of sophisticated tastes in art and literature

Greek historian, known as the “Father of History”
Heir to the technique of historia (“investigation/ research”) developed by Greeks in the late Archaic period
Came from a Greek community in Anatolia and traveled extensively
Collected information in western Asia and the Mediterranean lands
Traced the antecedents and chronicled the wars between the Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, thus originating the Western tradition of historical writing

A general term for a wide variety of beliefs and ritual practices that have developed in the Indian subcontinent since antiquity
Hinduism has roots in ancient Vedic, Buddhist, and south Indian religious concepts and practices
It spreads along the trade routes in Southeast Asia
Foundation is in the Vedic religion of the Aryan peoples of northern India
Incorporated elements from the Dravidian cultures of the south as well
Sacrifice became less central
The gods’ identities were altered

A heavily armored Greek infantryman of the Archaic and Classical periods who fought in the close-packed phalanx formation
Militaries composed of middle- and upper-class citizens supplying their own equipment
Armies were for centuries superior to all other military forces
Protected by a helmet, a breastplate, and leg guards, each holding a round shield over his own left side and the right side of the man next to him and brandished a thrusting spear, keeping a sword in reserve
Key to victory was maintaining the cohesion of one’s own formation while breaking open the enemy’s line
Close relationship between warfare and agriculture

Mahavira was known to his followers as Jina, “the Conqueror”, from which the name is derived
Belief system that challenged the old order
Emphasized the holiness of life force animating all living creatures
Practiced strict nonviolence
Wore masks to prevent accidentally inhaling small insects, and carefully brushed off a seat before sitting down
Devoted followers practiced extreme asceticism and nudity, eating only what they were given by others, and eventually starved themselves to death
Less devoted followers restricted from agriculture work by injunction against killing, were city dwellers engaged in commerce and banking

Sometimes called castes, Portuguese term meaning “breed”
Regional groups of people who have a common occupational sphere and who marry, eat, and generally interact with other members of their group
Category of social identity of great importance in Indian history
Elaborate rules governed interactions with members of other groups
Members of higher-status groups feared pollution from contact with lower-caste individuals and had to undergo elaborate rituals of purification to remove any taint

A Jew from Galilee in northern Israel who sought to reform Jewish beliefs and practices
Executed as a revolutionary by the Romans
Hailed as the Messiah and son of God by his followers
Became the central figure in Christianity
Belief system that developed in the centuries after his death
Offended by Jewish religious and political leaders’ excessive concern with money and power and by the perfunctory nature of mainstream Jewish religious practices at his time
Prescribed a return to the personal faith and spirituality of an earlier age
Viewed as both a fiery prophet and a political revolutionary
Followers, the Apostles, sought to spread his teachings among their fellow Jews and that he was the Messiah and had been resurrected

The residue of deeds performed in the past and present lives that adheres to a “spirit” and determines what form it will assume in its next life cycle in Indian tradition
Doctrine was used by the elite in ancient India to encourage people to accept their social position and do their duty
People who lived exemplary lives would be reborn into the higher class
Those who misbehaved would be punished in the next life by being relegated to a lower class or even a lower life form

A crafty elder Brahmin who guided Chandragupta in his conquests and consolidation of power
Widely credited for having played an important role in the establishment of the Maurya Empire
Said to have written a surviving treatise on government, the Arthashastra, a coldly pragmatic guide to political success and survival that advocates the mandala (circle) theory of foreign policy

Indian god who reminds Arjuna of both the necessity to fulfill his duty as a warrior and the proper frame of mind for performing these acts in the Bhagavad-Gita
Organizing principle behind all creation
Reveals that behind diversity and multiplicity lies a higher unity
Stories appear across a broad spectrum of Hindu philosophical and theological traditions

A vast epic chronicling the events leading up to a cataclysmic battle between related kinship groups in early India
Includes the Bhagavad-Gita, the most important work of Indian sacred literature
One of the two great Indian epics
Political forms, social organization, and other cultural elements in the story are said to reflect the conditions of the early Vedic period
Based on oral predecessors before it achieved its final form

Mahayana Buddhism
“Great Vehicle” branch of Buddhism followed in China, Japan, and Central Asia
Focuses on reverence for Buddha and for bodhisattvas, enlightened persons who have postponed nirvana to help others attain enlightenment
More accessible to the populace and easily absorbed into the vast social and cultural fabric of Hinduism

Mauryan Empire
324 – 184 B.C.E.
First state to unify most of the Indian subcontinent
Founded by Chandragupta Maurya
Grew wealthy from taxes on agriculture, iron mining and control trade routes from its capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley
One of the world’s largest empires in its time, and the largest ever in the Indian subcontinent
Enjoyed an era of social harmony, religious transformation, and expansion of the sciences and of knowledge

The Hindu concept of the spirit’s “liberation” from the endless cycle of rebirths
Various avenues – such as physical discipline, meditation, and acts of devotion to the gods – by which the spirit can distance itself from desire for the things of this world and be merged with the divine force that animates the universe
Central concept and is included as one of the four aspects and goals of human life
Concept found in Jainism, Buddhism, and Hinduism

Seasonal winds in the Indian Ocean caused by the differences in temperature between the rapidly heating and cooling landmasses of Africa and Asia and the slowly changing ocean waters
Strong and predictable winds have long been ridden across the open sea by sailors
Large amounts of rainfall deposited on parts of India, Southeast Asia, and China allow for the cultivation of several crops a year
Made three harvests a year possib le in some places

Patron/client relationship
A fundamental social relationship in which the patron (a wealthy, powerful individual) provided legal and economic protection and assistance to clients, men of lesser status and means
The clines supported the political careers and economic interests of their patron
Complex ties of obligation that bound together individuals of different classes
Accepted, institutionalized, and turned inequality into a system of mutual benefits and obligations

Paul of Tarsus
A Jew from the Greek city of Tarsus in Anatolia
Initially persecuted the followers of Jesus but received revelation on the road to Syrian Damascus and became a Christian
Took advantage of his Hellenized background and Roman citizenship, travelling throughout Syria-Palestine, Anatolia, and Greece
Spoke both Greek and Aramaic and moved comfortably between the Greco-Roman and Jewish worlds
Used Roman roads and called on his Roman citizenship to protect him from the arbitrary action of local authorities
Preached the new religion and established churches
Found his greatest success among pagans (“gentiles”) and began the process by which Christianity separated from Judaism

Pax romana
“Roman peace”
Guaranteed the safety and stability of Romans
Greatly enhanced commerce
Connoted the stability and prosperity that Roman rule brought to the lands of the Roman Empire in the first two centuries C.E.
Movement of people and trade goods along Roman roads and safe seas allowed for the spread of cultural practices, technologies, and religious ideas

Peloponnesian War
431 – 404 B.C.E.
A protracted and costly conflict between the Athenian and Spartan alliance systems that conflict between the Athenian and Spartan alliance systems that convulsed most of the Greek world
Was largely a consequence of Athenian imperialism
Possession of a naval empire allowed Athens to fight a war of attrition
Sparta prevailed because of Athenian errors and Persian financial support
Nightmarish conflict and dragged on for nearly three decades with great loss of life and squandering resources

Aristocratic leader
Guided the Athenian state through the transformation to full participatory democracy for all male citizens
Transferred all power to popular organs of government: the Assembly, Council of 500, and People’s Courts
Supervised construction of the Acropolis
Pursued a policy of imperial expansion that led to the Peloponnesian War
Formulated a strategy of attribution but died from the plague early in the war
Redistributed profits of the empire to the many Athenians working on the construction and decoration of monuments and gained extraordinary popularity

A complex of palaces, reception halls, and treasury buildings erected by the Persian kings Darius I and Xerxes in the Persian homeland
Believed that New Year’s festivals, coronations, weddings, and funerals of Persian kings were held here
Ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire
Exemplifies the Achaemenid style of architecture

Persian Wars
499 – 449 B.C.E.
Conflicts between Greek city-states and the Persian Empire, ranging from the Ionian Revolt through Darius’s punitive expedition that failed at Marathon and the defeat of Xerxes’ massive invasion of Greece by the Spartan-led Hellenic League first major setback for Persian arms launched the Greeks into their period of greatest cultural productivity
Herodotus chronicled these events in the first “history” in the Western traditions

Greek term for a city-state
An urban center and the agricultural territory under its control
Came in various sizes, with populations as small as several thousand or as large as several hundred thousand in the case of Athens
The characteristic form of political organization in southern and central Greece in the Archaic and Classical periods
Some were oligarchic, others democratic, depending on the powers delegated to the Council and the Assembly
Fiercely jealous of its independence and suspicious of its neighbors, leading to frequent conflict

37 B.C.E. – 284 C.E.
Term used to characterize Roman government in the first three centuries C.E.
Based on the ambiguous title princeps (“first citizen”) adopted by Augustus to conceal his military dictatorship
First period of the Roman Empire
Characterized by a concerted effort on the part of the Emperors to preserve the illusion of the formal continuance of the Roman Republic

323 – 30 B.C.E.
The Macedonian dynasty, descended from one of Alexander the Great’s officers, that ruled Egypt for three centuries
Perfected the administrative structure devised by the pharaohs to extract the surplus wealth of this populous and productive land
Economy was centrally planned and highly controlled
Vast revenues poured into the royal treasury from rents, taxes of all sorts, and royal monopolies on olive oil, salt, papyrus, and other key commodities
Ruled from Alexandria
Encouraged the immigration of Greeks from the homeland and, in return for their skills and collaboration in the military or civil administration, gave them land and a privileged position in the new society
Did not plant Greek-style cities throughout the Egyptian countryside

A people and state in the Wei Valley of eastern China that conquered rival states and created the first Chinese empire
Ruler, Shi Huangdi, standardized many features of Chinese society and ruthlessly marshaled subjects for military and construction projects, engendering hostility that led to the fall of his dynasty shortly after his death
Government abolished the right of the eldest son to inherit all the land property, requiring estates to be broken up and passed on to several heirs
District officials were appointed by the king and watched over by his agents as a new, centrally controlled administrative structure
Many Confucian books were publicly burned and many scholars brutally executed
Framework was largely taken over by the succeeding Han Empire

507 – 31 B.C.E.
Period in which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate
Was not a democracy in the modern sense
Sovereign power resided in an Assembly of the male citizens where the votes of the wealthy class counted for more than the votes of poor citizens
Center of power was the Senate
Increasingly made policy and governed
Self-perpetuating body whose members served for live
Brought together the state’s wealth, influence, and political and military experience

Process by which the Latin language and Roman culture became dominant in the western provinces
Indigenous peoples in the provinces often chose this because of the political and economic advantages that it brought
Many people were drawn to the aura of success surrounding the language and culture of the dominant people

The dedication to a god of a valued possession, often a living creature
Offerings meant to invigorate the gods and thereby sustain their creative powers and promote stability in the world
An essential ritual of the Vedic religion
Controlled by Brahmin priests
Only they knew the rituals and prayers

Repeating cycle of birth, life, and death within Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism
A person’s current life is only one of many
Lifespan stretches back before birth into past existences and reaches forward beyond death into future incarnations
The quality of the actions, or karma, performed determined the future destiny of each person
Buddha taught that there is no beginning to this cycle but that it can be ended through perceiving reality

A historical Indo-Aryan language
Primary liturgical language of Hinduism and a literary and scholarly language in Buddhism and Jainism
Developed during the Vedic Age of India
Sanskrit literature includes a tradition of poetry, drama, scientific, technical, philosophical, and dharma texts
Continues to be widely used as a ceremonial language in Hindu and Buddhist religious rituals

Ritual in the Gupta Empire where a widow was expected to create herself on her husband’s funeral pyre
Seen as a way of keeping a woman “pure”
Women who declined to make this ultimate gesture of devotion were forbidden to remarry, shunned socially, and given little opportunity to earn a living

Governor of a province in the Achaemenid Persian Empire, often a relative of the king
Families lived in the province governed by their head, acquired knowledge about local conditions, and formed connections with the local elite because the tendency for the position was hereditary
Responsible for protection of the province and for forwarding tribute to the central administration
Outlying provinces enjoyed considerable autonomy
Were responsible for collecting and sending tributes to the king
Most of the tribute was hoarded, leading to inflation and an increasing burden of taxation and official corruption

A council whose members were the heads of wealthy, landowning families
Effectively governed the Roman state and the growing empire in the era of the Roman Republic
Rome conquered an empire of unprecedented extent in the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea under their leadership
Self-perpetuating body whose members served for life, brought together the state’s wealth, influence, and political and military experience
Nominated their sons for public office and filled vacancies from the ranks of former officials

Shi Huangdi
Founder of the short-lived Qin dynasty and creator of the Chinese Empire
Remembered for his ruthless conquests of rival states, standardizations of practices, and forcible organization of labor for military and engineering tasks
His tomb, with its army of life-size terracotta soldiers, has been partially excavated
Came to the throne at the age of thirteen
Guided by a circle of Legalist advisers and launched a series of wars of conquest
Claimed that his dynasty would last ten thousand generations
Persuaded that the scholars were subverting the goals of the regime and burnt Confucian books publicly and brutally executed many scholars

Hindu god that represents both creation and destruction
Lives in ascetic isolation on Mount Kailasa in the Himalayas
Often represented performing dance steps that symbolize these acts
Preeminent deity that was dominant in the Dravidian south

Sima Qian
Chief astrologer for the Han dynasty emperor Wu
Composed a monumental history of China from its legendary origins to his own time and is regarded as the Chinese “father of history”
Castrated by Wu for defending a disgraced general
Presents a generally negative view, portraying Wu as being manipulated by religious charlatans promising him magical powers, immortality, and séances with the dead


Athenian philosopher who shifted the emphasis of philosophical investigation from questions of natural science to ethics and human behavior
Attracted young disciples from elite families but made enemies by revealing the ignorance and pretensions of others, culminating in his trial and execution by the Athenian state
Believed that he was wiser than everyone else by knowing that he knew nothing
Easily disposed the charges against him
Disciples regarded his execution as a martyrdom, and smart young men such as Plato withdrew from public life and dedicated themselves to the philosophical pursuit of knowledge and truth

Dominant city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia
Influenced much of Southeast Asia
An important center for the expansion of Buddhism
A term for a state that acquires prestige and power by developing attractive cultural forms and staging elaborate public ceremonies to attract and bind subjects to the center

Tamil kingdoms
Kingdoms of southern India (Cholas, Pandyas, and Cheras)
Frequent conflict with one another
Inhabited primarily by speakers of Dravidian languages
Developed in partial isolation, and somewhat differently, from the Arya north
Produced epics, poetry, and performance arts
Religious beliefs were merged into the Hindu synthesis

Theravada Buddhism
“Way of the Elders” branch of Buddhism followed in Sri Lanka and much of Southeast Asia
Remains close to the original principles set forth by the Buddha
Downplays the importance of gods and emphasizes austerity and the individual’s search for enlightenment

Third-century crisis
Historians’ term for the political, military, and economic turmoil that beset the Roman Empire during much of the third century C.E.
Frequent changes of ruler, civil wars, barbarian invasions, decline of urban centers, and near destruction of long-distance commerce and the monetary economy
Diocletian restored order by making fundamental changes after 284 C.E.
Resulted in such profound changes in the Empire’s institutions that it is increasingly seen as defining a transition between historical periods of classical antiquity and late antiquity

Greek and Phoenician warship of the fifth and fourth centuries B.C.E.
Sleek and light, powered by 170 oars arranged in three vertical tiers
Manned by skilled sailors and capable of short bursts of speed and complex maneuvers
Added to the effectiveness of the Athenian navy

Term the Greeks used to describe someone who seized and held power in violation of the normal procedures and traditions of the community
Appeared in many Greek city-states in the seventh and sixth centuries B.C.E.
Took advantage of the disaffection of the emerging middle class and, by weakening the old elite, unwittingly contributed to the evolution of democracy
Often disgruntled or ambitious members of the aristocracy

“color” or “class”
Category of social identity of great importance in Indian history
Four major social divisions that individuals were born in to
Brahmin priest class
Kshatriya warrior/administrator class
Vaishya merchant/farmer class
Shudra laborer class
Included many jati
Eventually the Untouchable group was added
Just one of the mechanisms developed to regulate relations between different groups

Early Indian sacred “knowledge” (literal meaning of the word) preserved and communicated orally by Brahmin priests and eventually written down
Religious texts are the main source of information about the Vedic period
Includes a thousand poetic hymns to various deities contained in the Rig Veda
The source of the name of the time period is the text itself

Preeminent deity in Hinduism
Has a clear Arya pedigree and remained popular in northern India
Known as “the preserver”
A benevolent deity who helps his devotees in times of need
Appears on earth in one of a series of incarnation whenever demonic forces threaten the cosmic order
Incarnations include: Rama, Krishna, and Buddha

Confederation of nomadic peoples living beyond the northwest frontier of ancient China
Posed a huge military threat to China for centuries with frequent wars and high costs in lives and resources
Appeased by the Hans and paid off with “gifts”
Chinese rulers tried a variety of defenses and stratagems to ward off these “barbarians”
Dispersed in the first century

A religion originating in ancient Iran with the prophet Zoraster
Centered on a single benevolent deity – Ahuramazda – who engaged in a 12,000 year struggle with demonic forces before prevailing and restoring a pristine world
Emphasizing truth telling, reverence, and purity
Demanded that humans choose sides in the struggle between good and evil
Those whose good conduct indicated their support for Ahuramazda would be rewarded
Others would be punished
Spread within its realm and influenced Judaism, Christianity, and other faiths

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