While driving on a congested freeway during rush hour many people may have often wished that all the other cars would simply disappear so we arrive at our destination on time. Realizing that it is beyond their control, their thoughts may return to another solution and something that they can control – the departure time. All those other cars on the freeway are external factors affecting a commute to work. Their presence or behaviors are beyond an individual’s control. Leaving for work early is a controllable internal factor, as the driver is in complete control of when they leave for work. Just as with our personal lives, organizations feel the effects of internal and external factors. This paper will detail how internal and external factors affect the four functions of management and how delegation manages their functions. Using Southwest Airlines as an example, it will provide examples of how globalization, technology, innovation, diversity, and ethics play significant roles in management planning, organizing, leading, and controlling; the four functions of management. As mentioned in the example above, external factors are largely beyond someone’s, or an organizations control. The Internet is an external factor that has given even the smallest business the ability to compete globally. Companies must adjust planning, organizing, leading, and controlling so that it may compete in an international marketplace. With employees and resources, drawn from the United States as well as from overseas, organizations must now internally train employees how to do business as well as interact with people from other cultures. Southwest Airlines hires from an international market and purchases equipment from the United States and international businesses on a regular basis. Technology and innovation can now spring from anywhere in the world. Globalization gives organizations a worldwide shopping market that they may draw from when assembling and coordinating resources to achieve its goals. Tapping into an international market is globalization. Many companies, including Southwest Airlines, have offices and production facilities other countries. Externally, Southwest Airlines has globalized their company by collaborating with Volaris, a Mexican airline, to provide flights into Mexico. Collaborating with Volaris has given Southwest customers seamless transaction and travel experience for flights to Mexico. Internally, Southwest implemented an international help desk with bilingual customer service agents to ensure comprehensive customer support. Meeting the needs of a growing international customer base was a planning priority for Southwest executives and managers. Southwest Airlines has a strong demand of passengers who wish to fly globally. Managers cannot be in all of these places at the same so they must delegate the responsibility onto the managers at the different airline hubs. Managers at the different hubs are responsible for ensuring that passengers are making their connecting flights and handle any conflicts that may arise. This type of service requires innovation and technology. According to Powers (2011), “A company cannot succeed without incorporating into its strategy the astonishing technologies that exist and continue to evolve” (Technology Solutions for Human Services, para. 3). A radical upgrade of saving fuel and reducing noise took three years of preparation and required retraining 6,000 pilots. Southwest pilots will have different instruments and new look displays to fly precise satellite-based navigation approaches to airports. A new technology called Required Navigation Performance (RNP) from Navarus, a Seattle, Washington company, and developed in Australia can shorten routes and flight times. While in descending mode, the airplane will no longer have to line up miles away from the airport powering up engines to level off repeatedly but can...
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