EXTERNAL FINANCING AND GROWTH
Two growth rates used in financial planning:
1. Internal growth rate
- The maximum growth rate a firm can achieve without external financing of any kind (no debt or equity).
- This is the growth rate that the firm can maintain with internal financing only.
- The required increase in assets is exactly equal to the addition to retained earnings, and EFN is therefore zero.
IGR = ROA x Plowback ratio
1 – (ROA x Plowback ratio)
2. Sustainable growth rate
- The maximum growth rate a firm can achieve without external EQUITY financing while maintaining a constant debt-equity ratio.
- The firm can borrow, but must maintain its debt-equity ratio (no increase in financial leverage).
SGR = ROE x Plowback ratio
1 – (ROE x Plowback ratio)
Or SGR = m (1-d) A/E
A/S – m(1-d) A/E
Where m = profit margin
d = dividend payout ratio
A = assets
E = equity
S = sales
|Income Statement (P) |Balance Sheet (P) | |Sales |500 |Current assets |200 | |Costs |400 |Net fixed assets |300 | |Income before taxes |100 |Total assets |500 | |Taxes (34%) |34 | | | |Income after taxes |66 | | | |...
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