The development and change of the semantic structure of a word is always a source of qualitative and quantitative development of the vocabulary.
All the types discussed depend upon some comparison between the earlier (whether extinct or still in use) and the new meaning of the given word. This comparison may be based on the difference between notions expressed or referents in the real world that are pointed out, on the type of psychological association at work, on evaluation of the latter by the speaker or, possibly, on some other feature.
The order in which various types are described will follow more or less closely the diachronic classifications of M. Breal and H. Paul. No attempt at a new classification is considered necessary. There seems to be no point in augmenting the number of unsatisfactory schemes already offered in literature. The treatment is therefore traditional.
M. Breal was probably the first to emphasize the fact that in passing from general usage into some special sphere of communication a word as a rule undergoes some sort of specialisation of its meaning. The word case, for instance, alongside its general meaning of 'circumstances in which a person or a thing is ' possesses special meanings: in law ( 'a law suit '), in grammar (e.g. the Possessive case), in medicine ( 'a patient ', 'an illness '). Compare the following:
One of Charles 's cases had been a child ill with a form of diphtheria. (C. P. SNOW) (case = a patient).
The Solicitor whom I met at the Holfords’ sent me a case which any young man at my stage would have thought himself lucky to get. (Idem) (case = a question decided, in a court of law, a law suit) /5,128/
The general, not specialized meaning is also very frequent in present-day English. For example: At last we tiptoed up the broad slippery staircase, and went to our rooms. But in my case not to sleep, immediately at least. (Idem) (case = circumstances in which one is)
Bibliography: 1. Antrushina. “English Lexicology”. 1985. 5. Galperin R., "Stylistics",Moscow, 1971. 6 8. Kukharenko V.A. Seminar in style. M. 1971 9 11. Мюллер. В.К. «Англо – Русский словарь» М. 1962. 13. The World Book Encyclopedia. USA. 1994. №. G.G. Volume p/ 905/ 14