Extended Essay PDF

Topics: Copenhagen, Sustainable development, Sustainability Pages: 47 (11889 words) Published: April 11, 2015
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I n Geo gra phy
Jonathan Sandidge
Birkerød Gymnasium, HF, and IB
Candidate number: 000632-035
Supervisor: Mette Bahnson Weber
Extended Essay May 2013

SUSTAINABILITY OF CITIES

Figure 1: Taken by Jonathan Sandidge

RESEARCH QUESTION
To what extent can Copenhagen City be considered sustainable? - an ‘Egan Wheel’ investigation
______________________________________________

Jonathan Erik Dow Sandidge
Word Count: 4,000

1

Jonathan Sandidge

Candidate number: 000632-035

B i r k e r ø d G y m n a s i u m , H F, a n d I B

Extended Essay May 2013

Abstract
!

This Extended Essay focuses on the sustainability of Copenhagen city in Den-

mark, from multiple branches of the Egan Wheel; culture and social, environment, services, and transportation and connectivity. To what extent can Copenhagen City be considered sustainable, an investigation of the ‘Egan Wheel’. !

To investigate the research question primary data was collected in three regions

in the inner city of Copenhagen, an upper class area, middle class area, and the lower class area of the city. In each of these areas five surveys were taken: Bi-Polar Landscape Evaluation Survey, Bi-Polar Environmental Evaluation Survey, House Quality Index, Car, Pedestrian, and Bicycle count, and Shopping Environment Evaluation Survey. There was also collected 30 questionnaires at each location. With this data the four sectors of the ‘Egan Wheel’ were analyzed. !

Each survey’s points were converted into a unit scale which ranged from nega-

tive three (-3) to positive three (3) to be able to establish a mean. The questionnaire was converted into points, from zero (0) to three (3) depending on the answer, used for analysis.
!

Time restraints made it difficult to obtain extensive amount of data which is nec-

essary to fully evaluate the sustainability of Copenhagen. To be able to completely conclude if Copenhagen is sustainable, more areas would need to be surveyed and more questionnaires would need to be completed.

!

There are many different perspectives of a sustainable city, which further limits

the possibility for a perfect conclusion. The ‘Egan Wheel’ is an excellent version of a sustainable city, but even with the different branches of the wheel it does not completely cover every aspect. The research carried out would also have to cover at least a period of one year or more.

!

The data collected on the four sectors of the ‘Egan Wheel’ concludes that Copen-

hagen city is a very sustainable city.
Word count: 300
2

Jonathan Sandidge

Candidate number: 000632-035

B i r k e r ø d G y m n a s i u m , H F, a n d I B

Extended Essay May 2013

Table of Contents
Introduction!

5

Aim!

5

Research Question!

5

Theoretical Background!

5

Area of Investigation!

9

Nørreport!

10

Kongens Nytorv!

10

Christianshavn!

11

Method of Data Collection!

12

Bi-Polar Landscape Evaluation Survey!

13

Bi-Polar Environmental Evaluation Survey!

14

The House Quality Index!

16

Car, Pedestrian, and Bicycle Count:!

17

Shopping Environment Evaluation Survey!

18

The Questionnaire!

20

Data Presentation!

21

Questionnaire!

27

Data Analysis!

33

Transport and Connectivity!

34

Services!

35

Environment!

36

3

Jonathan Sandidge

Candidate number: 000632-035

B i r k e r ø d G y m n a s i u m , H F, a n d I B

Extended Essay May 2013

Social and Culture!

37

Housing and the Built Environment!

37

Questionnaire!

38

Conclusion!

39

Transport and Connectivity!

39

Services!

39

Environment!

39

Social and Culture!

40

Housing and the Built Environment!

40

To what extent can Copenhagen City be considered sustainable?!

40

an ‘Egan Wheel’ investigation!

40

Further Investigation!

41

Bibliography!

42...

Bibliography: Nagle, Garrett, and Briony Cooke. Geography Course Companion. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, USA, 2011
Websites:
"København i tal og ord." http://kk.dk/, 2012
"s-tog." wikipedia.org, 2012. Web. 10 Oct 2012.
"Metro." http://m.dk/, 2012
"Kommune Kort." moviatrafik.dk, 2012. Web. 11 Oct 2012.
"Om DSB." http://www.dsb.dk/, 2012. Web. 11 Oct 2012.
"History of Copenhagen." wikipedia.org, 2012. Web. 11 Oct 2012.
"is milton keynes a sustainable city." ocr.org.uk, 2012. Web. 11 Oct 2012.
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