Expressive Art Therapies

Topics: Psychotherapy, Psychiatry, Expressive therapy Pages: 15 (5470 words) Published: November 20, 2014
This is a chapter excerpt from Guilford Publications.
Expressive Therapies, edited by Cathy A. Malchiodi
Copyright © 2005

EXPRESSIVE
History,
Theory,
THERAPIES
and Practice

࣍1
Expressive Therapies
History, Theory, and Practice
CATHY A. MALCHIODI

In his seminal work The Arts and Psychotherapy, McNiff (1981)

observes that expressive therapies are those that introduce action to psychotherapy and that “action within therapy and life is rarely limited to a specific mode of expression” (p. viii). While talk is still the traditional method of exchange in therapy and counseling, practitioners of expressive therapies know that people also have different expressive styles— one individual may be more visual, another more tactile, and so forth. When therapists are able to include these various expressive capacities in their work with clients, they can more fully enhance each person’s abilities to communicate effectively and authentically. This chapter introduces readers to the history and philosophy of expressive therapies and their applications in treatment. While there are approximately 30,000 individuals throughout the United States formally trained at the graduate level in one or more of the expressive therapies, these modalities have also been embraced by practitioners in the fields of psychology, psychiatry, social work, counseling, and medicine over the last decade. Activities such as drawing, drumming, creative movement, and play permit individuals of all ages to express their thoughts and feelings in a manner that is different than strictly verbal means and have unique properties as interventions. Indeed, with the advent of brief 1

2

EXPRESSIVE THERAPIES

forms of treatment, many therapists find that the expressive therapies help individuals to quickly communicate relevant issues in ways that talk therapy cannot do. For this reason and others, psychologists, counselors, and other health care professionals are turning to expressive modalities in their work with individuals of all ages.

DEFINING EXPRESSIVE THERAPIES
The expressive therapies are defined in this text as the use of art, music, dance/movement, drama, poetry/creative writing, play, and sandtray within the context of psychotherapy, counseling, rehabilitation, or health care. Several of the expressive therapies are also considered “creative arts therapies”—specifically, art, music, dance/movement, drama, and poetry/creative writing according to the National Coalition of Creative Arts Therapies Associations (2004a; hereafter abbreviated as NCCATA). Additionally, expressive therapies are sometimes referred to as “integrative approaches” when purposively used in combination in treatment.

While expressive therapies can be considered a unique domain of psychotherapy and counseling, within this domain exists a set of individual approaches, defined as follows: • Art therapy uses art media, images, and the creative process, and respects patient/client responses to the created products as reflections of development, abilities, personality, interests, concerns, and conflicts. It is a therapeutic means of reconciling emotional conflicts, fostering selfawareness, developing social skills, managing behavior, solving problems, reducing anxiety, aiding reality orientation, and increasing selfesteem (American Art Therapy Association, 2004). • Music therapy uses music to effect positive changes in the psychological, physical, cognitive, or social functioning of individuals with health or educational problems (American Music Therapy Association, 2004).

• Drama therapy is the systematic and intentional use of drama/ theatre processes, products, and associations to achieve the therapeutic goals of symptom relief, emotional and physical integration, and personal growth. It is an active approach that helps the client tell his or her story to solve a problem, achieve a catharsis, extend the depth and breadth of inner experience, understand the meaning of...

References: Agell, G. (1982). The place of art in art therapy: Art therapy or arts therapy. American Journal of Art Therapy, 21, 15–18.
American Art Therapy Association. (2004). About art therapy [Online]. Available
at www.arttherapy.org.
American Music Therapy Association. (2004). Definition of music therapy [Online]. Available at www.musictherapy.org.
Benson, H. (1996). Timeless healing: The power and biology of belief. New York:
Scribner’s.
Boyd-Webb, N. (Ed.). (1999). Play therapy with children in crisis (2nd ed.). New
York: Guilford Press.
Carson, D., & Becker, K. (2004). When lightning strikes: Reexamining creativity
in psychotherapy
Coughlin, E. (1990). Renewed appreciation of connections between mind and
body stimulate researchers to harness the healing power of the arts
Feder, B., & Feder, E. (1998). The art and science of evaluation in the arts therapies:
How do you know what’s working? Springfield, IL: Thomas.
Fleshman, B., & Fryrear, J. (1981). The arts in therapy. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Gil, E. (1998). Play therapy for severe psychological trauma [Videotape]. New
York: Guilford Press.
Gladding, S. (1992). Counseling as an art: The creative arts in counseling. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.
Gladding, S. T., & Newsome, D. W. (2003). Art in counseling. In C. A.
Goodenough, F. (1926). Measurement of intelligence by drawings. New York:
Harcourt, Brace, & World.
Johnson, D. R. (1985). Envisioning the link among the creative arts therapies. Arts
in Psychotherapy, 12(4), 233–238.
Knill, P., Barba, H., & Fuchs, M. (1995). Minstrels of the soul. Toronto:
Palmerston Press.
Landreth, G. (1991). Play therapy: The art of relationship. Muncie, IN: Accelerated Development.
Levine, E. (1999). On the play ground: Child psychotherapy and expressive arts
therapy
Lowenfeld, M. (1969). The world technique. London: Allen & Unwin.
Malchiodi, C. A. (1998). The art therapy sourcebook. New York: McGraw-Hill/
Contemporary Books.
Malchiodi, C. A. (2001). Using drawings as interventions with traumatized children. Trauma and Loss: Research and Interventions, 1(1), 21–27.
Malchiodi, C. A. (Ed.). (2003). Handbook of art therapy. New York: Guilford
Press.
McNiff, S. (1981). The arts and psychotherapy. Springfield, IL: Thomas.
McNiff. S. (1992). Art and medicine. Boston: Shambhala.
Moreno, J. (1923). Das Stegif Theater. Berlin: Gustave Kiepenheur.
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. (2004). Major domains of complementary and alternative medicine [Online]. Available at
nccam.nih.gov/fcp/classify/.
National Coalition of Creative Arts Therapies Associations. (2004a). National
Coalition of Creative Arts Therapies Associations [Online]
National Coalition of Creative Arts Therapies Associations. (2004b). Dance/
movement therapy [Online]
National Coalition of Creative Arts Therapies Associations. (2004c). Poetry therapy [Online]. Available at www.nccata.org/poetry.html.
National Drama Therapy Association. (2004). General questions about drama
therapy [Online]
Pennebaker, J. W. (1997). Opening up: The healing power of expressing emotions.
Riley, S. (2001). Group process made visible. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Rothschild, B. (2000). The body remembers: The psychobiology of trauma and
trauma treatment
Tinnin, L. (1994). Transforming the placebo effect in art therapy. American Journal of Art Therapy, 32(3), 75–78.
Vick, R. M. (2003). A brief history of art therapy. In C. A. Malchiodi (Ed.), Handbook of art therapy (pp. 5–15). New York: Guilford Press.
Weiner, D. (1999). Beyond talk therapy: Using movement and expressive techniques in clinical practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Existential and Expressive Arts Therapy Essay
  • Art Therapy Essay
  • Art Therapy with Rape Victims Essay
  • Art and Craft Essay
  • Art Therapy Essay
  • Brief History of Art Therapy Essay
  • Edith Kramer: Art As Therapy Research Paper
  • What Makes Art Therapy Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free