1b) describe an account for variations in density of population within your chosen country (Brazil)
Firstly , every country has its own population density. According to(http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/population-density.html) population density means ‘’Measure of the intensity of land use, expressed as number of people per square kilometre or square mile. Also called density of population’’. The World’s population is increasing rapidly and along with that increase come implications for our nearest future because the total population of human is a significant factor in environmental crisis. Consumption of energy, 1
food, water, increased pollution, CO2 production, all increase as the population increases. The population in Brazil was 17,438,434 then it increased to 51,944,397 in 1950 and by 1970 it reached 93,139,037. The average population density in Brazil is low compared to that of so many other countries. Although since 1970, there has been an increase in migration as well as from the rural to the urban areas. In 1994, The Average population density in Brazil was 18.5 inhabitants per square kilometre. There was a clear variation between the densely populated South-east and South, the sparse North and Centre-West and the Northeast at intermediate levels. According to the 1996 population census, (the process of collecting social, economic and demographic data consisting of each inhabitant of a country or territory at a definite period of time) . The most populated part of the country is the South-east (63 million), followed by the North-east (45 million), then the South (23.1 million), the North (11.1 million), and lastly, the Centre-West (10.2 million). The most inhabited states are São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná and Minas Gerais. In many cities and some rural areas, mainly in the major metropolitan areas, the population of females is more than the population of males. The predominance of women over men in the population of Brazil has been going on for a long time and has persisted. The 1996 population census showed that there were 97 men for every 100 women and that the total number of women exceeded the total number of men by 5 million. Also, The average age of the Brazilian population has greatly increased as a result of a decrease in infant mortality and an increase in the fertility Rate. In conclusion, All the states that are very populated are along the Atlantic coast, this shows that most people in Brazil live near or on the Atlantic coast of the north-eastern and southern-eastern states and that is because it is surrounded by water and it boosts up trade through water transport of goods and houses are easier to build in this part of the country. .(http://www.brazil.org.uk/brazilinbrief/population.html)
2) Brief explanation of the population pyramid annotation.
The population pyramid clearly shows that pyramid B is more developed than pyramid A. It is divided into males and females, the sex group and the percentage age is also given. The two pyramids provides a comparable view of a more economically developed country and a less economically developed country in the size of their age structure, birth rate, death rate, life expectancy and infant mortality. A shows an increase in the number of young individuals as a result to the high birthrate. It is an example of a typical low economically developed country because of its high death rate, high birth rate and low life expectancy while B is a more economically developed country because of its Low death rate, low birth rate ang high life expectancy.
Countries | Births per
Population| Deaths per
Tunisia| 18| 6|
Nigeria| 42| 17|
Zambia| 45| 20|
Congo| 38| 13|
South Africa| 21| 12|
Canada| 11| 7|
El-Salvador| 20| 7|
Haiti| 28| 9|
Venezuela| 21| 5|
Iraq| 32| 6|
India| 23| 7|
Indonesia| 20| 6|
Mongolia| 25| 6|
UnitedKingdom| 13| 9|
Switzerland| 10| 8|
Ukraine| 11| 15|
Albania| 10| 5|
New Zealand| 14| 7|
Russia| 12| 14|
Ethiopia| 39| 12|
(2010 WORLD POPULATION DATA SHEET (PAGE 6-10) 2010 Population Reference Bureau)
Birth rates and Death Rates of 20 countries.
3b) Factors that Can influence Variations in infant Mortality, Life expectancy And Total Fertility Rate in three different Countries (Nigeria, United Kingdom And Ethiopia)
There are different countries with different levels of development. This part of the assignment will consist of factors that can influence variation in Infant Mortality, life expectancy and total fertility Rate in three countries (United Kingdom, Nigeria and Ethiopia). First and foremost, Infant Mortality Rate is the Rate at which newborn babies die during their first year in life, per thousand of births within a geographical institution or area. Life expectancy rate is the estimated average number of years to be lived by people born in the same year if mortality rate at each age remains the same in the future and Total fertility Rate is the average number of children an average woman would have if she lives long to her reproductive life expectancy. Firstly, The united Kingdom is a More economically developed country (A country with low death rate, infant mortality and death rate; and also has high level of education, nutrition, electricity consumption per head. They can also be referred to as countries that have high standard of living, are more civilized, and financially richer.(http://science.jrank.org/pages/46228/more-economically-developed-country-(MEDC).html#ixzz1FZDmNf9B). Infant mortality variation does not just have to do with only geographical locations, they are also associated with deprivation. In the UK, the most deprived geographical sector of the population’s infant mortality rate is 85 per cent higher than that of the least deprived sector. (Page 25, Health Statistics Quarterly, No. 40, winter 2008, Office for National Statistics).
Infant mortality rate in some of the minor ethnic groups are higher than the rate in the general population. The regional differences affect the variation in Infant mortality because Inequalities are also present within the United Kingdom and clear differences in infant mortality can be identified within different regions and even in the same city. For example, the infant mortality rate in Central London is 33 per cent lower than that of the London’s surburbs; the south east England rate is 50 per cent lower than that of the west Midland’s and these similar differences can be found between the NHS Board of Edinburgh and Glasgow. The differences in the locations of regions is a main factor and very important factor. The Infant mortality Rate by Area
Area| Year| Rate**|
South East, England| 2007| 3.9|
West Midlands, England| 2007| 5.9|
London Centre| 2007| 4.2|
London Suburbs| 2007| 5.6|
Lothian NHS Board| 2008*| 4.1|
Greater Glasgow NHS Board| 2008*| 5.4|
(Health Statistics Quarterly, No. 40, winter (2008), Office for National Statistics).
The British government has set an aim to reduce the rate of infant mortality by at least 10% by 2010. Being born with low birth weight can also affect the variation in infant mortality rate. Almost 60 per cent of babies who died before their one year old birthday in England were born with very low or low birth weight, a baby weighing less than 1,500 grams has more chances of dying before their first birthday. Neonatal mortality and infant mortality by Birth-weight in United Kingdom (2006/2007) Birth-weight (grams)| Births| Neonatal Mortality* (numbers)| Infant Mortality** (numbers)| All| 689,893| 2,201| 3,185|
Less than 1,500| 7,867| 1,138| 1,396|
1500 – 1999| 9,918| 139| 206|
2000 – 2499| 31,555| 181| 284|
2500 – 2999 | 114,452| 214| 402|
3000 – 3499| 244,570| 177| 381|
3500 and over| 274,149| 202| 344|
Not stated| 7,382| 150| 172|
(Office for National Statistics, Health Statistics Quarterly, No. 40 Winter (2008).*Neonatal mortality: deaths within the first year in life. ** Infant mortality: deaths within the first 28 days in life. There are lots of variations in life expectancy between different parts of United Kingdom, mostly caused by the differences in public health and medical diet.However, most infant mortality (higher death rate of babies) is due to starvation and diseases. Variations in life expectancy between the local 9
authorities were greater than variations between regions all over the UK. There were clear gradients with rapidly increasing levels of deprivation throughout Great Britain in infant mortality and stillbirth rates. Whereas, the total fertility rate is influenced by the use of protections, education of pregnancy, more families using birth control methods and More teenagers giving Birth to children. The UK is a more economically developed country therefore the infant mortality is low, life expectancy is high and the total fertility Rate is Normal Unlike Ethiopia and Nigeria. On the other hand, Nigeria which is a developing country also has various factors influencing its variation in life expectancy, infant mortality and total fertility Rate. Surprisingly enough, it is a developing country but has the highest percentage of infant mortality rate in Africa. According to statistics from the ‘’Save the Children organisation’’ majority of children deaths under age five in Nigeria, mainly in the northern part of the country are due to diseases. Poor health care in Nigeria affects the infant mortality Rate. The statistics showed that most healthcares are underutilised, they lack basic amenities, structure , drugs, medical equipments, lacks qualified staffs, not well funded and poorly maintained thereby resulting in high child mortality rates. The increase in the death of babies is quite discomforting. It is generally recognised that most of the infant deaths were attributed to diseases such as malaria, diarrhea and fever. In the year 2000, 30 per cent of childhood deaths were due to malaria, which was not different from the 27 per cent deaths reported almost 30 years ago in 1981. Death rate in children below one year old had consistently remained high with 115 deaths per 1,000 live births (1990) with no change till this present date. Even the post- neonatal and neonatal mortality rate of 40 and 35 per 1,000 live births is even more troubling, the nutritional diet of infants also affects in infant mortality rate in such a way that most infants starve due to poverty, the nutritional status of babies showed that 41% of them had stunted growth and 23 per cent of children below the age of five were underweight. The infant mortality Rate in the country is very high and there has not been any significant change in the rate. (Nigerian Compass, Oladimeji Oladepo, Dean, Faculty of Public Health, University of Ibadan).In Nigeria, the issue of how long a citizen is expected to 10
live on a average depends on range of activities. Unfortunately, the life expectancy of Nigerians is only in the fifties, the country lags seriously behind than that of the people in developed countries. for Nigerians (World Health Report 2000). The total fertility Rate in Nigeria is affected by the high birth Rate in the country, Not everyone is educated on safe sex and birth control methods.( American Red Cross. The American National Red Cross. 27 Nov. 2005). Lastly, Ethiopia, This is one of the least developed countries in Africa. The infant mortality Rate in Ethiopia is really High because most people living in Ethiopia are very poor with really low standard of living. The drought that happened In Ethiopia influenced the variation in the infant mortality Rate in such a way that many babies below the age of one died due to lack of food, water, basic amenities, shelter, exposure to diseases and Poor Nutrition.
The image above shows the starvation among the people in Ethiopia and it has been a major problem. Ethiopia is particularly plagued by droughts and a large 11
percentage of the population is affected by malnutrition and starvation. 47% of Ethiopian children from five years and below are severely underweight, and 52% of them suffer from stunted growth. Although there has been moderate improvement in infant mortality rates due to preventable disease and that leads us to the average life expectancy in Ethiopia as of 2003 which was only 46 years, the variations in the life expectancy rate can be influenced by diseases, droughts and low standard of Living.
Bibliography * Map of population density in venezuela
* Map of population density in brazil
http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/assets/learn_its/alevel/geography/population/population-statistics-and-distribution/2007-10-18_155040.gif * Density of population within brazil.
http://www.s-cool.co.uk/a-level/geography/population/revise-it/population-statistics-and-distribution * World’s population.
* Definition of population density
http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/population-density.html * Population density in brazil
* infant moratlity in Ethiopia
* Population reference bureau , world population data sheet (page 6-10) * life expectancy rate definition
http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/hea_lif_exp_at_bir_tot_pop-life-expectancy-birth-total-population * infant mortality definition.
http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/infant-mortality.html - more economically developed country (MEDC) http://science.jrank.org/pages/46228/more-economically-developed-country-(MEDC).html#ixzz1FZDmNf9B - less economically developed country (LEDC)
http://science.jrank.org/pages/46048/less-economically-developed-country-(LEDC).html#ixzz1FZE4qmzy * United Kingdom Infant Mortality Rate
https://www.npeu.ox.ac.uk/files/downloads/infant-mortality/Infant-Mortality-Briefing-Paper-3.pdf * Total fertility rate definition
http://www.mondofacto.com/facts/dictionary?total+fertility+rate * Factors affecting life expectancy
http://www.news-medical.net/health/Life-Expectancy-What-is-Life-Expectancy.aspx * Goldenberg RL, Klebanoff MA, Nugent R, Krohn 14. MA, Hillier S, Andrews WW. Bacterial colonization of the vagina during pregnancy in four ethnic groups. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 1996; 174(5):1618-1621. 14