Explaining the historical development and the evolution of how each grew out of the original field of epistemology or metaphysics: Idealism
INTRINSICIST EPISTEMOLOGY. Idealism. Idealism is a method of knowing reality this referred to as rationalism. Rationalism is the belief that reason, logic, or the intellect is the primary way of understanding reality. Philosophy (Rationalism) holds that the senses provide little or no knowledge. One can, for instance, know that if x is equal to y and y is equal to z that x is equal to z without reference to experience, objects, or input from the senses. Rationalism also tends to argue that the mind possesses innate knowledge and that learning consists of ‘remembering this knowledge. Or it holds that the objects of knowledge are dependent upon the knower.Idealism’s particular method of knowing is called deduction. Deduction is the forming of conclusions logically derived from basic premises. The definition of moving to the universals to particulars. For example, the following syllogism is an example of deduction:
Major Premise: All men are mortal.
Minor Premise: Socrates is a man.
Conclusion: Socrates is mortal.
The first two premises are the absolute or universally held premises; the conclusion is the particular logically derived from the two premises. Deductions always yield necessary truth or facts and is the primary method of mathematician. Idealism validates its beliefs by adhering to the theory of coherence. Theory tests knowledge by testing whether or not truth claims cohere to statements already Accepted as fact ahead of time. If the new knowledge corresponds with the experience that is Accepted fact, then the new knowledge can be considered accurate and factual as well. Realism’s method of knowing is recognizing it as empiricism. Empiricism is the belief that knowledge begins in sensory experience. Empiricists typically hold that the mind is tabula rasa (blank slate)...
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