Explain why Jim Crow emerge in the South and how it was implemented. Also discuss how effective African Americans were in confronting the racial issues that Jim Crow engendered.
"Weel about and turn about and do jis so, Eb'ry time I weel about I jump Jim Crow."
These phrases are the lyrics to the song "Jump Jim Crow" written in 1828 and performed by a minstrel show performer Thomas Dartmouth (T.D.) "Daddy" Rice, a white New Yorker whom was the first to popularized black face performance or what is commonly known today as blackface minstrelsy. In his performance, Rice portrays Jim Crow to be a caricature of a racially prejudiced black man who possesses the characteristics of being buffoonish, slothful, and superstitious. However, by 1850s the character Jim Crow had instinctively developed to be a standard part of the minstrel shows in America; who would have imagine that a character in which Rice produced would manifest into a legendary expression, which once heard by the older African Americans generation would bring back reminiscences of their predecessors being severely discriminated against and being brutally tormented.
As the era matured, the term Jim Crow began to evolute's both its denotation and connotation to associate with African Americans, developing to become laws of racial segregation known as the Jim Crow laws. This essay therefore, will describe the materialization of Jim Crow in the South, in ways it was put into practice by the white supremacists, and lastly concluding how it affected the African American race when threatened with the consequences under the Jim Crow laws.
It seems as though the conclusion of the Civil War in 1865 was the beginning of the highly anticipated emancipation for African Americans. Unfortunately, the ending of the Civil War was merely a false delusion of the jubilant life in which the colored people could possibly only dream of. Reality though was the reoccurrence of a war of ideologies, with questions such as "what are we to do with the freedmen?", "should blacks be given land or should they be permit to purchase it?", "would they be allowed to vote?", "should equal rights be given to them?" surfacing. For a diminutive period of time, African Americans were granted a glimpse of optimism of equal rights by The Civil Rights Act of 1875. The Act was proposed by the Republican Senator Charles Sumner and the Republican Congressman Benjamin F. Butler in 1870, which was passed by Congress in February, 1875 and signed by President Grant on March 1, 1875. The Act guaranteed that "all persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall be entitled to the full and equal enjoyment of the accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of inns, public conveyances on land or water, theaters, and other places of public amusement; subject only to the conditions and limitations established by law, and applicable alike to citizens of every race and color, regardless of any previous condition of servitude".
During the glorious period of 1875 to 1883, the African Americans were permitted the consent to vote, hold position in the office, and were allowed attend school. The more incorporated cities in the south such as New Orleans, Louisiana for instance, desegregated its streetcars in 1867, began experimenting with integrated public schools in 1869, legalized interracial marriage between 1868 and 1896, elected a total of 32 black state senators and 95 state representatives, and had integrated juries, public boards, and police departments . It seems at the time that African Americans were finally receiving the justified treatment in which they ought to have, and were at last given the rights and opportunities in which they should have also obtained naturally as human beings.
Even though after the Civil War, African Americans were able to acquire the freedoms and privileges that their slave ancestors could only fantasize of, the fantasy was short lived and...
Bibliography: • David Levering Lewis W. E. B. Du Bois: The Fight for Equality and the American Century 1919-1963 (Owl Books 2001).
• Keith Weldon Medley, "The Sad Story of How 'Separate but Equal ' Was Born," Smithsonian Magazine Feb. 1994
• Lucius Jefferson Barker, "New Perspectives in American Politics" Transaction Publishers
• Parks Recalls Bus Boycott, Excerpts from an interview with Lynn Neary, NPR, 1992
• Desegregation and the Supreme Court" Boston: D.C
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