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Explain why and how the role of the federal government changed as a result of the Civil War with respect to TWO of the following during the period 1861-1877.

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Since the time of British colonization in the New World, sectionalism had played a major role in American politics. Differing geographies and climates had lent to development of varying types of economies. While he north dominated shipbuilding and trade, the South became dependent on the exploration of cotton, rice, tobacco, and indigo for revenue. Such contrasting economies ultimately led to different attitudes towards the welfare of the nation, particularly those which involved slavery, and views most often fell along sectional lines. Individuals such as Crawford, Calhoun, Clay, and Webster advocated for their individual regions, while still hoping to advance in the national goal. However, by the early 1860s, it became clear that compromise was no longer a viable solution. Sectional tensions surrounded the civil war, and the role of the federal government would greatly change in terms of race relations and economic development during the period between 1861 and 1877. While President Lincoln entered the Union, along with the promise of preserving the Union, the possible abolition of slavery was added to the turmoil of the conflict. Prior to the Civil War, race relations had mostly been left under the jurisdiction of states. Individuals, such as Jefferson and Madison, advocated the importance of states rights and introduced the concept of nullification in their Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. Such ideals were later embraced by Calhoun in response to the Tariff of Abominations in 1828, and the idea of possible secession became a true threat in the Nullification in 1832. However, the maintenance of balance between free and slave states in Congress brought slavery to the national forefront, and number of Compromises, including that of 1850, requires the cooperation of varying regions. However, the federal government passed a number of Revolutionary amendments during the Reconstruction Era. Government had become further centralized during the war, and exercise of increased executive power enabled the government to enact a number of bold acts of legislation. First of all, the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments were all ratified in the Reconstruction Era. Following the abolition of slavery as stipulated by the 13th amendment, freedmen were also ensured a number of rights and granted suffrage. Even among the Radical Republicans, including Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner, there was a lack of consensus on the Constitutionality of the 14th and 15th amendments. Both granted more power to the federal government than ever before. Federal government also successfully represented groups such as the Klu Klux Klan. With military presence in the South, federal legislation was enforced. Additionally, support for the Freedmen’s Bureau and other programs was widespread amongst Northerners and effectively enacted in the South for a brief period. It was not until after military reconstruction in 1877 after the election of Hayes, that federal policies regarding race relations became ineffective. In terms of economic development, the Civil War and Reconstruction Era was a boom for industry in the North. New industrial innovations continued to be made and factories became prolific in cities in the North. Since progressive reforms were yet to be made. factory owners were able to exploit their work force, which had become primarily immigrant by the 1870s, and yield the greatest profit. In addition, better communication systems in the North had helped in searing a Union victory. Railroads, canals, and turnpikes connected various parts of the Northern to Western regions. This period of time would open the door to nearly half a century of unlawful practices by railroad owners, including pooling, rebates, and monopolies. The federal government took a lassiez faire stance in terms of economic development, and the supreme court consistently began to cut in favor of big businesses. The Civil War Era and Reconstruction period set the stage for private industry to thrive, and further stratification among American economic classes. Additionally, the Federal government played a further role in economics by advocating a new national currency system, which would provide a sound monetary banking system behing which the Guided Era could unfold.

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