.1 Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19 years.
As soon as children are born into the world they start their development process. All children develop at different times but the sequence of development is normally the same, for example a child will learn to walk before they can run or skip.
Child development is often broken down into timelines. Children develop quite rapidly during the early years as the major milestones tend to be closer together. They then tend to slow down as they reach adulthood.
From birth – 3 months
A baby is normally born with many reflexes which they instantly do. For example, when a new-born baby is put on his mother chest he instinctively looks for his mothers’ breast – this is called the rooting reflex which will help the baby search for food and suck it. Babies are unable to control their movements so many are jerky and uncontrolled in the early months. We can encourage them to move their hands and feet by attaching rattles to their wrists and legs. By 3 months babies are able to support their head when raised to a sitting position. To further strengthen their neck and back muscles it is important to give babies lots of time on their tummies. Babies will start to tune into their fine motor skills by watching their hands and playing with their fingers. We can encourage their fine motor skills by giving them a rattle to hold.
Between 3 months – 6 months
Babies can raise their head and chest by supporting themselves with their arms. We can encourage their mobility by placing toys just behind babies reach. Babies will demonstrate their palmer grip to pass a toy between their hands; they will also begin to explore the world around them through their mouths by placing anything they can reach into their mouth. We can encourage this by placing suitable toys for placing in their mouths and offer different textures for them to feel.
Between 6 months – 1 year
Babies sit, moving from sitting with support to sitting alone. They will start to find ways to move across the floor by crawling, shuffling on their bottom or pulling themselves along furniture. Their fine motor skills will enable to use their pincher grip to pick things up but they will be unable to put them down again with control. We can assist them by letting them play with toys that require hand/eye coordination for example stacking cups and wooden bricks.
Between 1 year – 2 years
Between this age most toddlers will start to walk and we can encourage them by using push along toys like baby walkers. We should also give them opportunities to run freely in open spaces. Their fine motor skills have been tuned as they are able to release items with more control. Toddlers will be able to crawl up the stairs and climb down the stairs with help.
Between 2 years – 3 years
Children will start to negotiate space while running and on trikes. They will be able to jump and land with 2 feet together. They will also be able to walk backwards, sideward and on tiptoes. They will be able to hold a pencil with a tripod grip and we can encourage them by providing lots of arts and crafts. This in turn will help them form simple patterns on paper of horizontal and vertical lines.
Between 3 years – 6 years
Children will start to build bigger and complex towers; they will be able to dance and move in time to music and be able to tie their shoelaces.
Between 7 – 12 years
Children will be able to write capital and normal letters in the correct proportion to each other. They will be able to hop on either leg and be able to use toys such as roller skates. Children will be able to attempt more complex projects such as needlework and woodwork.
Between 12 – 19 years
The period between 12 – 19 years is referred to as adolescent. Most teenagers will try and detach themselves from their parents as they start to mature and want more independence.
Girls will start...
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