Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19 years.
There are four areas of development each of which has milestones relating to a sequence of learning for each child. The rate in which a child fulfils these milestones will vary as each child learns at a different pace.
Physical development perhaps has the most visible milestones which sees a baby with no muscle control, sense of being, who is 100% reliant on others for care, develop and learn to control movement, fine and gross motor skills and hand eye coordination. This begins with the testing and strengthening of larger muscles such as the neck, arms and legs. At 6 months a child may be able to hold and shake a rattle, smile and turn their head to sounds. This enables them to work to control their muscles allowing them to start sitting independently, roll from tummy to back, pull or push themselves up to stand, reach and lift arms, hold and pass objects.
Over the next year the child will be improving their muscle range, especially those in the legs allowing them to take their first steps, walk and bend. They will also be starting to develop fine motor skills such as holding crayons and picking up smaller objects
By the age of three the child may have gained control of their body and have a sense of space and co-ordination. This allows them to jump, kick a ball, climb stairs and play equipment with confidence. Fine motor skills are also developing so a child can hold and draw with a pencil, use equipment such as a knife and fork with help and build brick towers.
These are the skills being increased during the next few years and by six or seven years a child can ride a bike, kick and catch a ball, skip and hop. They will be learning to write and able to hold a pencil correctly, cut safely and independently with scissors. They will have more control of fine motor skills and be more able to fasten buttons, tie shoe laces, thread needles and do simple stitches.