# Explain the meaning of sustainable economic development Topics: Noise / Pages: 9 (2020 words) / Published: Oct 18th, 2013

INTRODUCTION TO TELECOMMUNICATION
By

Michelle Harris

A Project Submitted to the Faculty of the
Computer Science Department
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
For the Bachelor’s Degree of

MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS

In the Graduate College

THE PORTMORE COMMUNITY COLLEGE

2013

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to take this opportunity to thank the lord for health and strength to complete this project. Special thanks also goes to Ryan Howard one of my class mates who took the time to send an e-book to our group email about telecommunication so that we could get the required assistance to complete this project.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Thermal noise……………………………………………………………………………….……4
Cross-Talk………………………………………………………………………………………5-6
Jitters……………………………………………………………………………………………7-9
Wander…………………………………………………………………………………………..10
Distortion………………………………………………………………………………….….11-13
Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………….14
Appendices………………………………………………………………………..………….15-19
References………………………………………………………………………………………..20

THERMAL NOISE
Thermal noise may be defined as electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of charge carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applied voltage. Thermal noise may also be called Johnson-Nyquist noise, Johnson noise or Nyquist noise.
Thermal noise is the factor that sets the lower limit of sensitivity of a receiving system and is often expressed as a temperature, usually given in units referred to absolute zero. These units are called kelvins (K), not degrees.

Thermal noise is a general term referring to noise based on thermal agitations of electrons. The term ‘white noise’ refers to the average uniform spectral distribution of noise energy with respect to frequency. Thermal noise is directly proportional to bandwidth and noise temperature.

CROSSTALK