Q1b) Explain the characteristics of the different types of schools in relation to educational stage(s) and school governance There are three different categories of schools that exist to provide education. These categories are Maintained Schools, Independent Schools and Academies. Each category of school has its variations in how they are governed and the educational stages they cover. Firstly, there are the Maintained Schools which are funded by the Local Authority in which they are located. All Maintained Schools must follow the National Curriculum. This category can be further divided into four types of schools: Community Schools; Foundation and Trust Schools; Voluntary Schools and Specialist Schools. These schools can be either Primary or Secondary schools with the general exception being Specialist schools which tend to be at secondary education level only. Community Schools are owned and run by the Local Authority who assists the school in developing links within the local community. The Local Authority is also responsible for the Admissions Policy at these schools and for providing the support services the school requires. Foundation Schools are owned by a charitable foundation or a governing body. The decision to be this type of school is made by the governing body in consultation with parents. It is the governing body which is responsible for the admissions policy which is determined in consultation with the Local Authority. These schools have to buy in support services. Trust Schools are a type of Foundation School however, these schools form a Charitable Trust with an outside business. Voluntary Schools can also be divided into two types; Voluntary Aided and Voluntary Controlled. Voluntary Aided schools are run by a governing body and are mainly religious or faith focused. Funding is split between the governing body, the Local Education Authority and the Charity or religious organisation which usually own the land and buildings. The Local education authority is responsible for providing support services. Voluntary Controlled Schools in comparison are run and funded by the Local Authority although the land and buildings are owned by a Charity. It is the local authority who provides the support services in these types of school. Specialist Schools are created when a mainstream secondary school applies for specialist status. This allows the school to develop in one or two specialist areas with additional government funding. Independent Schools can be Primary or Secondary Schools and differ from maintained schools as these schools are funded not by the Local Authority but instead by fees paid by the parents of attending children. Independent schools do not have to follow the National Curriculum and are not monitored by Ofsted. Instead, these schools are funded by fees, money generated by investments and charitable gifts, they must register with the Department for Education and are inspected by the Independent Schools Inspectorate. Academies
Academies are similar to maintained schools in the fact that they have close links with the local education authority however, they are not maintained by the local education authority. Academies have more freedom than state schools.