There are many influences which can affect a child’s development, personal factors include influences before and at birth, health status and disabilities, sensory impairments and learning difficulties. Genetics affect a child’s development at conception where the sperm and egg determine sex, height and eye colour. If the genetics are faulty this can affect the child’s health and development. During pregnancy the mother needs to ensure that she does not smoke, drink or use drugs, all of these things are made up of toxins which can severely harm the baby which in turn can cause complications at birth and possible delayed development later on in life. Genetics can also cause addiction, depression and low self esteem if these problems run in the family. Difficulties throughout the labour such as anoxia (lack of oxygen) can cause difficulties for development. If a child is born with a condition or develops one later on in life this may affect their development. They may have an illness such as asthma which affects their breathing; this can be caused by living in highly polluted areas or living in a house with people who smoke. Due to this the child may be less likely to play and be active with their friends as their condition may restrict them from doing this, this may mean that the child has a lesser understanding of appropriate group interaction or team playing. Learning difficulties in a child can cause a developmental delay; this means that the child finds learning difficult. Disabilities, sensory impairments and learning difficulties can affect children's and young people's development, their disability may affect one area of development which in turn can affect another the development of another area, meaning that overall development cannot occur, this can lead to low self -esteem and self-worth.
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