Experimental Psychology: Concepts

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NON-ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING
Non-associative learning (Single-event learning) is a change in behavior due to repeatedly exposure to a single event and does not involve learning of a relationship between multiple events. It is contrasted with associative learning (e.g. classical conditioning or operant conditioning) that involves learning the associations between different events.

WHAT IS HABITUATION?
Habituation is the decrease of a response to a repeated eliciting stimulus that is not due to sensory adaption or motor fatigue. The habituation process is a form of adaptive behavior that is classified as non-associative learning.

CHARACTERISTICS OF HABITUATION
1-Repeated exposure: Repeated presentation of a stimulus will cause a decrease in response to that stimulus. 2- Frequency: Habituation is sensitive to the ISI (inter-stimulus-interval). Short ISIs are better at promoting short term habituation and long ISIs are better at promoting long-term habituation. 3- Stimulus Specificity: Habituation is stimulus specific. Habituation training on one stimulus does not generalize to other stimuli (Stimuli Discrimination) and any change in the stimulus is likely to result in the reappearance of the habituated response.  Coolidge effect: The Coolidge effect is the enhanced sexual arousal displayed by some species when presented with different sexual partners as opposed to the same sexual partner to whom it has habituated.

5- Intensity: Stimuli with high intensity will first produce sensitization but then get habituated more rapidly in comparison with low intensity stimuli. Highly aversive stimuli (e.g. pain or distress) don’t get habituated. 6- Not due to sensory adaption or motor fatigue: Sensory adaptation (or neural adaptation) occurs when an animal can no longer detect the stimulus as efficiently as when first presented and motor fatigue suggests that an animal is able to detect the stimulus but can no longer respond efficiently.

LONG-TERM HABITUATION
In

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