# Experiment 8

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Purpose
This experiment shows how different concentrations of acids and bases in a solution affect its pH level. When acids and bases are combined in a solution, they neutralize each other. This means that depending on the concentration of both acids and bases in a solution, the pH will vary. A neutral pH level is 7; anything below that level is known as an acidic solution, while anything above is known as a basic solution. To find out the pH, the solutions will be diluted and tested with different concentrations.

Experimental Procedure

Dillon, Stephanie. “Reactions in Aqueous Solutions: Strong Acids and Bases” Laboratory Manual. Pearson Publishing 2012, pp. 113-126.

Data and results

Acids Concentration of acid after dilution Experimental pH Theoretical pH % error
HCI 1 2*10-2 M 2.12 1.69 20.28%
HCI 2 8*10-4 M 2.64 3.09 17.04%
HCI 3 3.2*10-5 M 3.38 4.49 24.72%
HCI 4 1.3*10-6 M 5.85 5.88 0.51%

Bases Concentration of base after dilution Experimental pH Theoretical pH % error
NaOH 1 2*10-2 M 11.42 12.31 7.15%
NaOH 2 8*10-4 M 9.64 10.91 11.55%
NaOH 3 3.2*10-5 M 8.68 9.50 8.63%
NaOH 4 1.28*10-6 M 7.98 8.10 1.48%

Combined Concentration of acid and base after combination Experimental pH Theoretical pH % error
1 2*10-2 M 6.91 7 1.28%
2 8*10-4 M 6.04 7 13.71%
3 3.2*10-5 M 6.72 7 4%
4 1.3*10-6 M 6.32 7 9.71%

Mass of Salt: 0.186

Calculations

1. Concentration of Dilution: M1V1 = M2V2
(1.0mL)(0.5M) = (25mL)(X)
X = 0.02

2. pH Calculation: -log(H+)
-log(2 *10-2 M) = 1.69

3. pH from pOH: 14-pH = pOH
14 – 2= 10

4. Percent Error: Actual Value (2.12) – Theoretical Value(1.69) * 100 = 20.28%
Theoretical Value (1.69)

5. Percent Yield: Experimental Yield (g) *100
Theoretical Yield (g)

Conclusion

After putting together data and analyzing the reactions closely, one can see which metals create the heaviest flow of electrons, and which don’t. Magnesium and iron seem tend to have the highest flow of electrons

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