Acetaminophen is a commonly used analgesic, which is essentially just a medicine that relieves pain (Prescott, 2000). Acetaminophen is created by synthesizing p-Aminophenol with Acetic anhydride. This reaction occurs when the amine group of the p-aminophenol is acetylated by the acetic anhydride. The resultant is an amide functional group (Ellis, 2002). However, the product that is obtained from this product is a crude solid which cannot be used as an analgesic and therefore the crude solid must be purified. This purified product is what is later put into the analgesic. In this experiment, the procedures that are important are vacuum filtration and recrystallization which are both used to obtain the Acetaminophen product. When collecting products, it is important to know how much product is left and what is lost through the experiment. To do this, the balanced equation will be looked at and then the theoretical yield will be calculated. In order to calculate the theoretical yield, two equations will be used:
Will be used for both reactants to determine which reactant is the limiting reagent. After the limiting reagent is used, then the theoretical yield will be calculated using:
This will give the mass of the Acetaminophen.
The actual yield will be available in the experimental data, and using this knowledge, this equation will be used to calculate the percentage yield:
Once the percentage yield is calculated then the quality of the apparatus and procedure can be determined to obtain better results and more product in the future. The purpose of this experiment, is essentially to determine the purity of the product that is collected and filtered and recrystallized. Experimental Procedure:
The experimental procedure used for this experiment was outlined in the CHEM 123L lab manual, Experiment #1. All steps were followed without deviation. Experimental Observations:
Table 1: Experimental Data Values obtained in the Experiment Observation
Value of Observation
Mass of P-Aminophenol
Mass of Empty Erlenmeyer Flask
Mass of Erlenmeyer Flask after collecting precipitate
Mass of Crude Precipitate
Volume of Water Used
Mass of empty Erlenmeyer flask after second filtration
Mass of Erlenmeyer Flask after collecting second precipitate 75.44g
Mass of Purified Product
Melting Point from Meltemp
Expected Acetominophen Melting Point (Aldrich Catalogue)
Table 2: Qualitative Observations obtained in the Experiment
First 5 Minutes
The liquid was a peach colour, the powder partially dissolved within it. After Adding Acetic Acid
The liquid was clear and was a greenish-yellow colour. The product dissolved almost immediately as the acetic acid was added. After Heating; room temperature
The precipitate started to form.
In the Ice Bath
The peach colour returned, a solid precipitate started to form. After 1st Vacuum Filtration
The powder was white and was clamped together in some places due to the slight dampness, but broke apart easily. Recrystallization
Whilst heating, crude product dissolved and there was a clear liquid. In the ice bath, crystal like structures started to form. As there was not enough precipitate, the bottom was scratched and precipitate started to settle at the bottom of the flask. After 2nd Vacuum Filtration
Crystal like powder was obtained. It was white and glitter like.
Results and Calculations:
Reaction Equation for the Synthesis of Acetaminophen
C6H7NO + C4H6O3 C8H9NO2 + C2H4O2
P-aminophenol + Acetic Anhydride Acetaminophen + Acetic Acid
Determining the Theoretical Yield of Acetaminophen
1. Determine the Limiting Reagent
Daa = 1.082g/mL (Lide, 2000)
Therefore the limiting reagent is C6H7NO.
2. Determine the Theoretical Yield
Therefore the theoretical yield is 4.28g of C8H9NO2.
Determining the Percentage Yield
Therefore the percentage yield for this...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document