The Bystander Effect
A. Attention Getter: After the Giants won the Super Bowl in 2012, they did what most football teams do to celebrate. After going to Disneyworld, they held a parade through the streets of New York. During the parade, a fight broke out between a Giants fan and, of course, a Jets fan, the cause of which might seem obvious. Immediately, spectators did what anyone might do when they see a fight break out. They…..pulled out their phones and videotaped it. And from the videos, and there were many, we can see no one, not a single person, jump in and try to break the fight up. B. Background and Audience Relevance: Recently in the media there have been many stories of instances where someone has cried for help in public places, yet people are slow to react, if they react at all. As members of a growing community, we should be aware of emergency situations and how to react to them. C. Speaker Credibility: As a member of society, I have been in a situation where I was the bystander and wanted to learn more about the topic. D. Thesis: Learning about the Bystander Effect will help us better understand human reactions in public emergencies. E. Preview Main Points: First I will share with you some background information on the Bystander Effect, second, what causes us to choose whether to react, and finally what the outcome of the emergency can be. Transition to first main point: So first, what is the Bystander Effect? II. Main Point 1: In order to get a better grasp of what the Bystander Effect is, we must first, explore the background of the effect, and second, outline the characteristics of an emergency. Sub Point A: In 1964, a woman named Kitty Genovese went back to her home at 3am and was attacked by a maniac. Thirty-eight of her neighbors saw what was happening, but not a single one even phoned the police even though the assault lasted for over half an hour, and Kitty died. Latane and Darley researched this phenomenon...
References: Fischer, P., Krueger, J. I., Greitemeyer, T., Vogrincic, C., Kastenmuller, A., Frey, D…Kainbacher, M. (2011) The bystander-effect: A meta-analytic review on bystander intervention in dangerous and non-dangerous emergencies. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 517-537. doi:10.1037/a0023304
Latane, B., & Darley, J. M. (1969) Bystander “apathy.” American Scientist, 57(2), 244-268. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/27828530
Latane, B., & Darley, J. M. (1968). Group inhibition of bystander intervention in emergencies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10(3), 215-221. doi:10.1037/h0026570
Marsh, J., Keltner, D. (Fall/Winter 2006-07). We are all bystanders. Greater Good, 3(2). Retrieved from http://greatergood.berkeley.edu
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