Examination of Cognitive Psychology
October 13, 2013
Dr. C. Schultz
Clinical Psychology Foundations
Clinical Psychology History
Clinical psychology includes both psychological assessment and psychotherapy. The role of a clinical psychologist carries many facets. Some of these include psychological research, teaching, counseling, and assessment of individuals (Plante, 2011). The practice of clinical psychology has several sub-divisions of specialty in practice. Lightner Witmer opened the very first clinic for psychology in 1896. In this clinic Witmer developed many remarkable milestones for medical and scientific breakthroughs within the practice of clinical psychology. Greek philosophers identified the connections of the human mind and body through science many years ago. Aristotle, Hippocrates, and Plato recognized the relationship these connections had on the illnesses (Plante, 2011). The middle ages presented challenges for mentally disturbed individuals because such aliments were considered a weakness in character and insanity an issue reflective of the spirit. The Renaissance era introduced new theories and breakthroughs in scientific and religious findings that attempted to discredit psychological understanding. The development of biomedical reductionism created a better understanding of illness by means of scientific observation (Plante, 2011). Sigmund Freud developed a better understanding of the workings of the mind in the nineteenth century establishing the connection between mental illness and abnormal behaviors (Plante, 2011). Freud primarily focused on the theory based on unconscious thoughts and dreams to understand their influences on health and well-being. These theories facilitated the establishment of psychoanalytic thinking to comprehend an individual’s inner self as a focus on theories in contemporary clinical psychology (Benjamin Jr., 2005). Shortly thereafter these milestone developments, Wilhelm Wundt published the William James' Principles of Psychology. The APA was established and the new ideas of application of psychological principles to mankind was not readily shared or accepted by many of the field’s colleagues. Wilmer opened a clinic without hesitation and provided a place to apply these new applications to individuals (Plante, 2011). The two wars during this time significantly influenced the desire and need for clinical psychologists. Assessing individuals with psychometric assessment techniques proved instrumental to the veterans with post-war psychiatric disorders. In the middle 1970s new guidelines were developed in Colorado for clinical training and educational guidelines of clinical psychologists. The later portion of the century provided the foundation for George Engel to create the bio-psychosocial model for the treatment of mental illness. Engel combined both the physical and psychological illnesses to create treatment plans focused on assessments of the combination of social, biological, and psychological implications imperative to understand for the provision of treatment (Plante, 2011). Clinical Psychology Evolution
Clinical psychology embraces the scientific advances in the exploration of science in combination with the understanding of the human psyche. The combined application of research and practice continue to provide improvements in assessment and treatment to enable evolving theories in the practice (Kinderman, 2009).The use of the scientific method combined with the use of modern day medicine introduce the practice of Clinical psychology as an evolving science with an internal intrinsic mechanism (Borys & Pope, 1989). The standards associated with modern medicine and neuroscience continues to evolve and uncover new theories in reference to the human mind and its interconnections with emotions, thoughts, and behaviors. Empirical evidence continues to influence clinical psychology and its evolution. The...
References: Benjamin, L. T., Jr. (2005). A history of clinical psychology as a profession in America (and a glimpse at its future). Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1(1), 1-30. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.143758
Borys, D. S., & Pope, K. S. (1989). Dual relationships between therapist and client: A national study of psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. Vol.20(5).
Jacobson, N. S., & Truax, P. (1991). Clinical significance: a statistical approach to defining meaningful change in psychotherapy research. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology. Vol.59(1), 12.
Kinderman, P. (2009). The future of counseling psychology: A view from outside. Counseling Psychology Review, Special Edition: Counseling Psychology–The Next 10 Years. 24(1), 16-21.
Plante, T. G. (2011). Contemporary clinical psychology (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
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