Urban renewal -
Urban renewal and urban development are global processes. In the older parts of Sydney they are most apparent as changing economic conditions, new technology and the increasing expense of locating people and services on the urban fringe, make inner city living and working most attractive. It is the redevelopment of old urban areas with new buildings and improved infrastructure. In Sydney the factors that have encouraged urban renewal include:
Government policies promoting urban consolidation and medium-density housing
The attractions of an inner city lifestyle, including existing infrastructure such as transport
The availability of redevelopment sites
Urban decline is a process in which buildings and infrastructure, in an urban area, fall into disrepair and dilapidation. It is sometimes called urban decay. Businesses close and sometimes buildings become derelict and the intensity of land use declines.
Urban decay is becoming a bigger problem as educated workers keep moving to the suburbs to avoid crime, poor schools, taxes and racial tensions. These businesses also find that building new facilities in the suburbs is much cheaper than refurbishing old buildings for their needs. There are many reasons to move out of the city but only a few reasons to stay.
Urban consolidation –
Urban consolidation is a new policy put up in attempt to reduce the expense of infrastructure and to promote the increase in medium-density housing.
Urban sprawl occurs when people move from cities to the areas around them and develop the land with houses, businesses and roads.
With decentralisation of services to outer suburban areas, people no longer had to travel to the CBD for shopping and other services. The shift in population from inner to the outer suburbs let to a gradual emptying of the inner city and inner suburbs. This process is referred to as the doughnut effect.