Exam 1 short answers

Topics: Bacteria, DNA, Microbiology Pages: 2 (439 words) Published: October 30, 2014

41) Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a serious form of pneumonia. The disease was first noticed in southern China in late 2002 and quickly spread all over the world. In the beginning, scientists detected two types of possible etiological agents in SARS patients: a Chlamydia-like bacterium and a Coronavirus-like virus. What experiments are needed to prove that the Coronavirus-like virus is indeed the cause of SARS? (4 points) Koch’s Postulates (2 pts):

Identify/detect agent in diseased host/patient
Isolate agent (in pure culture)
Introduce agent into (previously healthy) host
Re-isolate agent
1 pt for each postulate;
-0.5 pts if failed to mention that isolation is from host with SARS 42) Describe the major contributions of Louis Pasteur to Microbiology (4 points). Disproved spontaneous generation
Discovered fermentation
Developed pasteurization
Developed vaccines (i.e. rabies and anthrax)
Determined silkworm disease was caused by a protozoa
His work contributed to the use of aseptic techniques and supported the germ theory of disease Chicken cholera/ immunity to disease
1 pt for each contribution
43) Use examples to explain how microbes impact human lifes (4 points) Fermentation of food and drinks (i.e. bread, cheese, wine, beer, etc.) Agriculture – Bt toxin as a safe alternative to chemical pesticides Recombinant DNA technology (i.e. to produce medicines like insulin) Production of antibiotics

Vaccine development
Biotechnology; gene therapy (using viral vectors)
Photosynthesis (algae and cyanobacteria)
Nutrient recycling/decomposition/wastewater treatment/etc.
Pathogenic microbes cause disease
Microbes can cause food spoilage
1 pt for each example; ideally from different aspects
44) Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells (4 points). Prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells
No nucleus True nucleus
No organelles Membrane-bound organelles
Typically have cell walls containing peptidoglycan If cell wall is present,...
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