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Exam 1 Nursing Respiratory/Cardiac

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Exam 1 Nursing Respiratory/Cardiac
RESPIRATORY- Cardiac Exam 1 (bolded words signify the objective questions)

**KNOW ADPIE FOR EACH DISORDER**

Upper airway contains: nose, sinuses, mouth, larynx, pharynx, trachea (everything but the lungs itself)

Lower airway: the lungs (bronchioles, alveoli)

4 functions of the resp system:
1. O2 transport: via circulating blood to tissues; CO2 will be exchanged from the cells back to the blood.
2. respiration: gas exchange from the air and the blood.
3. ventilation: the physical- inspiration and expiration.
4. pulmonary diffusion and perfusion: diffusion is the exchanges of O2 and CO2; perfusion is the blood flow that goes through the pulmonary circulation.

Assessment:
What is the chief complaint? The frequency resp. infections? How have they treated it (meds and therapies)? Risk factors (fam. History, occupation, COPD/ asthma, snoring)? A recent change in the ct’s family/work roles? ADLs affected?

- need a good description of what is going on

Physical assessment: ▪ Nose: externally- may have lesions, asymmetry, or inflammation; internally- mucosa, swelling, exudates, or bleeding. Inspect the septum for deviation, perforation, or bleeding; a deviated septum can affect the patency of the airway. - common cold: will appear swollen and hyperemic - allergic rhinitis: appears pale and swollen - nasal polyps: benign overgrowths of mms (mucous membranes) that is the body’s response to an irritant (with asthma or an allergy)

▪ Sinuses: will be tender (due to inflammation); will have a diffuse red glow when transilluminated.

▪ Mouth (tonsils, uvula, posterior pharynx): inspect for color, symmetry, exudates, ulceration, or enlargement.

▪ Trachea: direct palpation; may be displaced

▪ Lungs: require assessment through inspection (symmetry/ depth/ rate of the chest rising and falling); palpation (tactile fremitus), percussion (check for consolidation or air in the lungs), and auscultation

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