Final exam essay questions
The optional final exam will consist of five of the following essay questions. Each essay will be worth five points. The final will be averaged with your other four grades. There will be a follow-up post on whether you should take the final exam, but we wanted to get the essay prompts out to you as soon as possible.
1) Two species of Hawaiian lobelioids, Cyanea floribunda and C. pycnocarpa, have diverged from a common ancestor approximately 0.5 million years ago. No fossil record is known for these species. You are trying to determine which species has been evolving at the fastest rate at the molecular or morphological level since they diverged from their common ancestor. Describe the data you would need to collect to make that determination and how you would interpret it. There are two ways to determine whether any species has evolved faster than one another at the molecular or morphological level since their last common ancestors. Since there is no fossil record, there is no way that one can look at molecular level to see the rate in regard of polypeptide, polynucleotide, polysaccharides, enzyme, energy ATP. The second route is known as the systematic way, in which one is required to look at the phylogenetic tree to determine the rate of the growth by looking among related species with the compared organisms to determine the growth. By comparing the homologous structures between species, one can determine how fast the molecular and morphology are changing in how fast the species are changing and gaining the function of the structures. Not sure about this one. I already sold my book back so I cant really look it up.
2) Evolution can be defined as change in allele frequencies over time. Name three evolutionary processes that can cause evolution in this sense and describe how they do so. Describe how two of those processes might act in opposition to each other. What is the likely evolutionary outcome of that opposition?
Three evolutionary processes that can cause evolution in the change in allele frequencies are artificial selection, experimental evolution and imperfect adaptation. Artificial selection can cause evolution in which human are allowed to select for the allele that caused the desired changes in physiological as well as the behavior that they wanted. Artificial selection allowed the human to pick out the desired traits that the organisms already have and therefore continue to breed the desired traits in the possibility of having the trait to pass on to the next generation. Artificial selection allows the human to breed the desired traits and it allows the process of allele frequencies to change. For those traits that the human do not desire, they will less likely to breed it, therefore decrease the frequencies for the allele in the population. Experimental and imperfect adaptation allows the environment changes to occur in which the organisms are forced to adapt to the new environment. In the consequences that the organisms can not adapt to the new environment because of the genes, it is usually up to nature to select for the traits that help the organisms survive and with the changes in the environment over time, there are more likely that nature will select for the trait that help the organisms. Artificial selection and imperfect adaptation may act in opposition with each other, in which the desired traits may negatively affect the organisms in their lives. However, nature will be sure to select for the traits that will help the organisms to live (How can you describe the last question)?
There are many evolutionary processes to choose from but, For this one I would choose Natural Selection, Sexual selection, and Genetic Drift. Evolution is driven by a change in allele frequencies over-time, these processes facilitate evolution by adding or removing genetic variation from a population. Natural selection occurs when there are differences in survival and/or...
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