Evolution of thoughts in Scientific Management

Topics: Management, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Abraham Maslow Pages: 10 (1783 words) Published: December 14, 2004
"The main thing in management is to put

the necessary person on the necessary place and

to achieve performance of the task put before it."

Sokrat

INTRODUCTION

Any organisation, any enterprise cannot become successful without management.

However management as a science in such kind in which we have it now, has appeared not at once.

As soon as people began to live in organised groups, the necessity of management has

appeared.

At the first stage where groups of people were insignificant, management in all spheres was carried out by one person - the leader of this group. Further, in process of group growth and complication of functions carried out by them, the necessity of labour division and group differentiation has appeared. But it couldn't happen at once, it required centuries.

The Egyptian pyramids build in 3000 - 2000 B.C. are a good example not only ancient Egyptian's culture, but also their administrative art. Construction of huge pyramids demanded,

first of all, precise planning.

While the practice of management can be traced back to 3000 B.C., it was not given serious attention until 1800 when large organisations emerged.

Industrial revolution has given a push to development of theoretical researches and management practices.

However, till an epoch of capitalism function of management was carried out by the owner himself and a small group of the persons approached to him. The role of the specially trained managers developed during an epoch of monocapitalism. Having been faced with a competition, changeable environment, managers developed knowledge system of how it is better to use resources.

During all history of management development we distinguish two approaches: classical and modern.

Classical approach allows to allocate four patterns of management thought:

1898 Scientific management

1916 Administrative management

1920 Bureaucracy

1927 Human relations

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT

Occurrence of scientific management takes place at the beginning of 20th century and is connected to F.W.Taylor's name, Henri L.Gantt, Frank and Lilian Gilbreth.

Scientific management focuses on worker and machine relationship. Organisational productivity can be increased by increasing the efficiency of production process.

In 1911, Frederick Taylor, known as the Father of scientific management, published Principles of Scientific Management in which he proposed to design work methods to increase productivity. One of his famous experiments was performed at Bethlehem Steel Company in Pittsburgh. He examined the time and movements, developed a better method for performing that job and trained the worker. In addition, Taylor offered a piece rate that increased as workers produced more.

Taylor's studies were followed by Gibreths, a husband and a wife, who also helped to find more efficient ways for workers to produce output. Frank Gilbreth made his contribution in the field of brick lying by changing an 18 step process into 5 step that led to increased productivity by about 200 percent.

The Gibreths believed that were was one best way to perform an operation. However this "one best way" could be replaced when a better way was introduced.

Other representative of Scientific Management was Henri Gantt. He developed a Gantt chart, which is used for scheduling multiple task over a time period. He developed a pay system with a guaranteed minimum wage and bonus systems for people on fixed wages and brought in a significant contribution to the leadership theory development.

ADMINISTRATIVE MANAGEMENT

Unlike Scientific Management which focused its attention on productivity, Administrative Management have engaged in development of management in the organisation as a whole and was concerned about administrative part of the organisation.

The ancestor of this school was Henri Fayol.

He worked as a mining engineer and came to realise that managing an enterprise required a...

References: 1 "Management"Stephen P. Robbinsons, Mary Coulter, 7 edition
2 "Management" John R. Schermerhorn, JR. 8 edition
3 "Management" John R. Schermerhorn, JR. 7 edition
4"Management" Ricky W. Griffin 7 edition
5 "Modern Management" Siobhan D. Tiernan, Michael J. Morley, Edel Foley
www.sfsu.edu/~erich/slides2/-5k
www.ee.uwa.edu.au/~ccroft/em333/leca02.html-12k
www.evolutionevent.co.uk/-2k
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