Evolution of Surveying Equipment in Civil Engineering

Satisfactory Essays
Topics: Surveying
Evolution of equipment in civil engineering:
Old Equipment:
Graphometer:
A graphometer is a surveying instrument which consists of a semi-circle which has been divided into degrees and minutes, and has a pair of sight veins at either end as well as a movable alidade with a pair of sights at either end. It was used to calculate distances by means of triangulation and to determine positions of specific points on land or at sea .Many graphometers, although not all of them, have a built in magnetic compass.
It is a fairly simple instrument to use, however the results achieved using this instrument are not as accurate as results obtained using modern equipment. These instruments do not have the same high levels of durability that modern equipment can display; this is due to the type of material these instruments are usually made from, namely brass or wood. Although the graphometer itself is light weight and compact, the tripod stand which it sits on is heavier and more difficult to transport. Today these instruments are no longer in use or production, they are considered to be historical artifacts which are purchased for large amounts of money by collectors depending on their age, condition and rarity.

(Science Museum, 2003)

(Science and society picture library, 2008)

New equipment: Field computer: Field computers are handheld devices, which are light weight and compact. One of the disadvantages of using a device like this is that it is battery operated which means that the battery will need to be charged regularly and a spare battery will need to be carried around .Although these devices are fairly easy to use, a person who is not comfortable using a computer may find that using a device like this can be complicated. The accuracy of these devices varies depending on the specific make and model of field computer that is being used .Hand held devices designed for land surveying purposes can produce results which are accurate to within cm.

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Good Essays

    Evolution of Surveying

    • 665 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Evolution of Surveying Introduction: Surveying is defined as use science, art and technology of determining relative position of points on, above or beneath the surface of the earth, or establishing such points. However, surveying can be regarded as the discipline which encompasses all methods for gathering and processing information about the physical earth and environment. Evolution of Surveying: The oldest historical records in existence today which bear directly…

    • 665 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Better Essays

    Evolution of Baseball Equipment Baseball is a sport that our nation has loved and enjoyed since the early nineteenth century. I have played baseball for as long as I can remember, and the game has become a passion of mine. As I am passionate about the sport, I have begun to wonder where the equipment we have today has come from. How did we get to pristine gloves and flawless bats? There a five main pieces of equipment used by a baseball player, and all of which today have been modified to…

    • 1894 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Civil Engineering

    • 2613 Words
    • 11 Pages

    CIVIL ENGINEERING (CIV) Spring 2013 Civil Engineering (CIV) Major in Civil Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences Chairperson: Fu-Pen Chiang Undergraduate Program Director: Harold Walker Undergraduate Secretary: Augusta Kuhn Office: Heavy Engineering 250C Phone: (631) 632-8315 Email: harold.walker@stonybrook.edu Fax: (631) 632-8544 Web address: http://me.eng.sunysb.edu/civil Civil Engineering (CIV) The Bachelor of Engineering in Civil…

    • 2613 Words
    • 11 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Civil Engineering

    • 964 Words
    • 4 Pages

    Engineering is a very important part of our society, both now and in the past. It is a major that opens a wide variety of career opportunities for you after college. Engineering is what keeps our nation moving and up to date with technology. It is a very strong appealing major in college due to the amount of average income, and also it appeals to many individuals likes in a career. It has the highest paying income straight out of college, and that increase in pay usually does not stop, it just keeps…

    • 964 Words
    • 4 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    civil engineering

    • 7192 Words
    • 33 Pages

    Civil Engineering Interview Questions And Answers Guide. Global Guideline. http://www.globalguideline.com/ Civil Engineering Interview Questions And Answers Civil Engineering Job Interview Preparation Guide. Question # 1 What are the causes of building collapse? Answer:The PAssage of time is one reason. Buildings also collapse due to weak foundations. Earthquakes, hurricanes and other natural disasters can also damage the structure of the buildings and cause it to collapse. Bombings…

    • 7192 Words
    • 33 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Satisfactory Essays

    Civil Engineering

    • 573 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Klehfoth 1/29/01 CIVIL ENGINEERING Civil engineering is the oldest of the main branches of engineering. Civil engineers use their knowledge to supervise and plan construction projects such as roads, airports, bridges, canals, tunnels, and wastewater systems. They also collaborate with architects to design and construct various types of buildings. Some other civil engineering endeavors include highways, airports, pipelines, railroads, levees, and irrigation and sewage systems. Civil engineers try…

    • 573 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Satisfactory Essays
  • Good Essays

    Civil Engineering

    • 318 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Civil engineering is the oldest of the main branches of engineering. The title “civil engineering” was first used about 1750 by John Smeaton, an English engineer. Civil engineers plan and supervise the construction of buildings, bridges, waterways, streets, highways and sewerage systems. Other civil engineering projects include railroads, tunnels, dams, canals, airports and irrigation systems. Civil engineering should be familiar with the many materials used in the structures he builds. Materials…

    • 318 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    civil engineering

    • 1356 Words
    • 6 Pages

    Soil mechanics is one of the new disciplines of civil engineering, concerning the study of soil. It gathers data and provides the theoretical base for analysis in geotechnical engineering. In earlier times, constructions were built based on assumptions. After some important foundation-related engineering problems, example of the Leaning Tower of Pisa, engineers…

    • 1356 Words
    • 6 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Civil engineering

    • 419 Words
    • 2 Pages

    In modern usage, civil engineering is a broad field of engineering that deals with the planning, construction, and maintenance of fixed structures, or public works, as they are related to earth, water, or civilization and their processes. See also: Earth & Climate Geochemistry Environmental Science Geology Matter & Energy Civil Engineering Engineering Engineering and Construction Most civil engineering today deals with power plants, bridges, roads, railways, structures, water supply, irrigation…

    • 419 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Good Essays

    Civil Engineering

    • 470 Words
    • 2 Pages

    Civil engineering is the job of building structures, buildings, roads, airports and many more things. I think this is one of the most important jobs there are. This is one of the oldest engineering perfessions. To become a civil engineer you typically have to complete a four year college program and major in civil engineering. The main types of civil engineering are, coastal, construction, earthquake, environmental, geotechnical, structural, and transportation. Structural engineering dates…

    • 470 Words
    • 2 Pages
    Good Essays