Course of Study: U58006
Author: Meyer,E. Ashleigh,M. George,J.M. Jones,G.R.
Title: The Evolution of Management Thought; Chapter 2
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
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After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
l!f Describe how the need to increase organisational efficiency and effectiveness has guided the evolution of management theory.
l!f Explain the principle of job specialisation and division of labour, and say why the study of person-task relationships is central to the pursuit of increased efficiency.
l!f Identify the principles of administration and organisation that underlie effective organisations.
l!f Trace the changes in theories about how managers should behave to motivate and control employees.
l!f Explain the con~butions of management science to the efficient use of organisational resources.
l!f Explain why the study of the external environment and its impact on an organisation has become a central issue in management thought.
A ManagerJs Challenge
Finding Better Ways to Make Cars
What is the best way to use
Car production has changed dramatically over the years as managers have applied different principles of management to organise and control work activities. Prior to 1900, small groups
A MANAGER ' S CHALLENGE
of skilled workers co-operated to hand-build cars with parts that often had to be altered and modified to fit together. This system, a type of small-batch production, was very expensive; assembling just one car took considerable time and effort and skilled workers could produce only a few cars in a day. Although t hese cars were of high quality, they were too expensive; managers needed better techniques to increase efficiency, reduce cost s and sell more cars. Henry Ford revolutionised the car industry. In 1913, Ford opened the Highland Park car plant in Detroit to produce the Model T Ford, and his team of manufacturing managers pioneered the development of mass-production manufacturing, ~ system that made the small-batch system almost obsolete overnight. In mass production, moving conveyor belts bring the cars to the workers. Each worker performs a single assigned task along a production lme and the speed of the conveyor belt is the primary means of controlling workers' activities. Ford experimented to discover the most...
References: H. Ford, 'Progressive Manufacture ', Encyclopaedia Britannica, 13th ed. (New York: Encyclopaedia
2 R. Edwards, Contested Terrain: The Transformation of the Workplace in the Twentieth Century (New
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3 A. Smith, The Wealth ofNations (London: Penguin, 1982).
5 J. G. March and H. A-:., Simon, Organisations (New York: Wiley, 1958).
6 L. W. Fry, 'The Maligned F. W. Taylor: A Reply to His Many Critics ', Academy of Management Review
1 (1976), 124-29.
7 F. W. Taylor, Shop Management (New York: Harper, 1903); F. W . Taylor, The Principles of Scientific
Management (New York: Harper,, 1911).
8 J. A. Litterer, The Emergence of Systematic Management as Shown by the Literature from 1870-1900
(New York: Garland, 1986).
9 H. R. Pollard, Developments in Management Thought (New York: Crane, 1974).
10 D. Wren, The Evolution of Management Thought (New York: Wiley, 1994), 134.
12 J. M./Staudenmaier, Jr., 'Henry Ford 's Big Flaw ', Invention qnd Technology 10 (1994), 34-44.
13 H. Beynon, Workingfor Ford (London: Penguin, 1975).
15 F. B. Gilbreth, Primer of Scientific Management (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1912).
16 F. B. Gilbreth, Jr. and E. G. Gilbreth, Cheaper by the Dozen (New York: Crowell, 1948).
17 M. Weber, From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, ed. H. H. Gerth and C. W. Mills (New York: Oxford
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21 H. Fayol, General and Industrial Management (New York: IEEE Press, 1984).
23 M. Paoli and A. Prencipe, 'Memory of the Organisation and Memory within the Organisation ',
Journal of Management and Governance 7 (2), 2003, 145-62.
24 T. J. Peters and R. H~ Waterman, Jr., In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America 's Best-Run
Companies (New York: Harper & Row, 1982).
25 R. E. Eccles and N. Nohira, Beyond the Hype: Rediscovering the Essence of Management (Boston:
Harvard Business School Press, 1992).
26 M. van Marrewijk and J. Timmers, 'Human Capital Management: New Possibilities in People
Management ', Journal of Business Ethics 44 (2-3), 2003, 171-84.
27 P. Graham, M. P. Follett- Prophet of Management: A Celebration of Writings from the 1920s (Boston:
Harvard Business School Press, 1995).
29 M. P. Follett, Creative Experience (London: Longmans, 1924).
30 E. Mayo, The Human Problems of Industrial Civilization (New York: Macmillan, 1933); F. J.
31 D. W. Organ, 'Review of Management and the Worker, by F. J. Roethlisberger and W. J. Dickson ',
Academy of Management Review 13 (1986), 460-64.
32 D. Roy, 'Banana Time: Job Satisfaction and Informal Interaction ', Human Organisation 18 (1960),
Sociological Review 33 (1967), 403-16.
34 D. McGregor, The Human Side of Enterprise (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1960).
J. D. Thompson, Organisations in Action (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967).
D. Katz and R. L. Kahn, The Social Psychology of Organisations (New York: Wiley, 1966); Thompson,
Organisations in Action.
41 M. Easterby-Smith, R. Thorpe and A. Lowe, Management Research: An Introduction, 2nd ed. (London:
42 W. E. Deming, Out of the Crisis (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1986).
43 For a discussion of various approaches, seeR. L. Flood and M. C. Jackson, Creative Problem Solving:
Total Systems Intervention (Chichester: John Wiley, 1991).
44 T. Burns a~d G. M. Stalker, The Management of Innovation (London: Tavistock, 1961); P. R. Lawrence
47 Dru~ker, Peter ·F.1 Management: Tasks, Responsibilities, Practices (New York: Harper & Row, 1973).
48 Drucker, Peter F., Managing the Non-Profit Organization: Principles and Practices (New York: Harper
& Row, 1990}(
49 Druckei, Peter F., Concept of th f: Corporation (Somerset, NJ; Transaction Publishers, 1993).
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