Evolution of Management Thought

Topics: Management, Henri Fayol, Scientific management Pages: 64 (17700 words) Published: April 21, 2015
Copyright notice
Course of Study: U58006
Author: Meyer,E. Ashleigh,M. George,J.M. Jones,G.R.
Title: The Evolution of Management Thought; Chapter 2
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
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After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

l!f Describe how the need to increase organisational efficiency and effectiveness has guided the evolution of management theory.

l!f Explain the principle of job specialisation and division of labour, and say why the study of person-task relationships is central to the pursuit of increased efficiency.

l!f Identify the principles of administration and organisation that underlie effective organisations.

l!f Trace the changes in theories about how managers should behave to motivate and control employees.

l!f Explain the con~butions of management science to the efficient use of organisational resources.

l!f Explain why the study of the external environment and its impact on an organisation has become a central issue in management thought.

A ManagerJs Challenge
Finding Better Ways to Make Cars
What is the best way to use



Car production has changed dramatically over the years as managers have applied different principles of management to organise and control work activities. Prior to 1900, small groups



of skilled workers co-operated to hand-build cars with parts that often had to be altered and modified to fit together. This system, a type of small-batch production, was very expensive; assembling just one car took considerable time and effort and skilled workers could produce only a few cars in a day. Although t hese cars were of high quality, they were too expensive; managers needed better techniques to increase efficiency, reduce cost s and sell more cars. Henry Ford revolutionised the car industry. In 1913, Ford opened the Highland Park car plant in Detroit to produce the Model T Ford, and his team of manufacturing managers pioneered the development of mass-production manufacturing, ~ system that made the small-batch system almost obsolete overnight. In mass production, moving conveyor belts bring the cars to the workers. Each worker performs a single assigned task along a production lme and the speed of the conveyor belt is the primary means of controlling workers' activities. Ford experimented to discover the most...

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13 H. Beynon, Workingfor Ford (London: Penguin, 1975).
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Management ', Journal of Business Ethics 44 (2-3), 2003, 171-84.
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31 D. W. Organ, 'Review of Management and the Worker, by F. J. Roethlisberger and W. J. Dickson ',
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43 For a discussion of various approaches, seeR. L. Flood and M. C. Jackson, Creative Problem Solving:
Total Systems Intervention (Chichester: John Wiley, 1991).
44 T. Burns a~d G. M. Stalker, The Management of Innovation (London: Tavistock, 1961); P. R. Lawrence
and J
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& Row, 1990}(
49 Druckei, Peter F., Concept of th f: Corporation (Somerset, NJ; Transaction Publishers, 1993).
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