American Public University
January 27, 2008
In this paper I will be explaining the evolution of management from the beginning of the industrial revolution to present which includes Classical School of Management, the Human Relations/ Behavioral School of Management, Theory X and Y, the Scientific Approach, Contingency Approach, and Theory Z. I will also be comparing the classical style and the present style to each other and to my and current work environment. The Classical school of thought began during the Industrial Revolution around 1900 and continued into the 1920s when new problems related to the factory system began to appear. Managers were unsure of how to train employees (many of them non-English speaking immigrants) or deal with increased labor dissatisfaction, so they began to test solutions. Traditional or classical management focuses on efficiency and includes scientific, bureaucratic and administrative management. Bureaucratic management needs a rational set of structuring guidelines, such as rules and procedures, hierarchy, and a clear division of labor. Scientific management focuses on the "one best way" to do the job. Administrative management emphasizes the flow of information in the operation of the organization. The first management theory approach to emerge was scientific management. It was introduced in an attempt to create a mental revolution in the workplace. It can be defined as the systematic study of work methods in order to improve efficiency. Frederick W. Taylor was its main contributor. Other major contributors were Frank Gilbreth, Lillian Gilbreth, and Henry Gantt.