Evolution of Information Technology and its Emergence in India
Information Technology today is what runs businesses worldwide. It is what drives the industries and is an irreplaceable element of our routine lives. But where did it all begin? Why has it gained so much importance over time, so much so that we study an entire subject on it?
Through this paper we have traced the path of evolution of IT from its nascent stages, globally as well as from the Indian perspective. We have tried to take into account the tremendous growth of the IT sector in India and single out the advantages faced by the Indian IT sector. We have also looked into the performance of the Indian IT industry and its derivatives.
This paper gives a basic snapshot of the current Indian IT industry scenario and its growth prospects. It also mentions the challenges faced by the Indian IT industry, the role of the current big players and the importance of the emerging smaller players.
What is Information?
Information is processed data that is meaningful to the recipient and helps in making current and progressive decisions. What is Information Technology?
Command + Parameters
Set of Instructions in a logical sequence
Set of related programs
Application (Manual, Troubleshooting guides, helpdesk, utilities, etc.) 5.
History of IT
Writing and Alphabets--communication
First humans communicated only through speaking and picture drawings Paper and Pens--input technologies
Around 100 A.D., the Chinese made paper from rags, on which modern-day papermaking is based. Books and Libraries: Permanent Storage Devices
Religious leaders in Mesopotamia kept the earliest "books"
The First Numbering Systems
The first numbering systems similar to those in use today were invented between 100 and 200 A.D. by Hindus in India who created a nine-digit numbering system. 2.
Around 875 A.D., the concept of zero was developed.
The First Calculators: The Abacus
The Electromechanical Age: 1840 - 1940
The discovery of ways to harness electricity was the key advance made during this period. Knowledge and information could now be converted into electrical impulses. The Electronic Age: 1940 - Present
Eckert and Mauchly: The First High-Speed, General-Purpose Computer Using Vacuum Tubes: Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) The First General-Purpose Computer for Commercial Use: Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC). But, a machine called LEO (Lyons Electronic Office) went into action a few months before UNIVAC and became the world's first commercial computer. 1959-1963 – Transistors as the main logic element
Individual transistors were replaced by integrated circuits
Advanced programming languages like BASIC developed, which is where Bill Gates and Microsoft got their start in 1975. The Fourth Generation (1979- Present)
Large-scale and very large-scale integrated circuits (LSIs and VLSICs) E.g., Visicalc, Lotus 1-2-3, dBase, Microsoft Word, and many others. •
Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) for PCs arrive in early 1980s
Indian IT History
In the year 1974, Operation 'Smiling Buddha' was unleashed by the then PM, Indira Gandhi. On May 18 that year, India exploded her first nuclear bomb that had the world gaping in horror. Countries across the world set an embargo against India under the given circumstances. India retaliated by embarking on a process of nationalization that became the political mantra. The first companies to bear the brunt of this swift government policy change that was an Indian tit-for-tat against the nuclear embargo were the foreign MNCs like Coca Cola and IBM. Unable to cope with the stringent regulations, these multinationals were thrown out of the country in 1977 not to return for another 15 years. Current situation
Off shoring or outsourcing have become the buzz words with all the global corporations....
References: and bibliography
1. Annual Report 2007-2008, Ministry of Information Technology and Communication.
2. Stanford Review Research Paper by Rafiq Dossani , Senior Research Scholar , Asia-Pacific Research Center , Stanford University
3. The Software Industry in India - Royal Danish Embassy, New Delhi.
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