EVOLUTION OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS IN INDIA AND RUSSIA
EVOLUTION OF IR IN INDIA
In ancient India, agriculture was the prime occupation followed by trading and then manual services. The industry sector (comprising of weaving of woolen clothes, dyeing of leather, etc.) was greatly advanced. CASTE SYSTEM
The caste system in India was based on transfer of skills and specialization to the descendents. The various caste categories were Brahmins, Kshyatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. LABOUR IN MEDIEVAL INDIA
British invasion over 700 years badly ruined the work of art and craft.
The work was revived under the Mughal rule and carried in big apartments called Karkhanas. GUILDS AND UNIONS
Shrenis ( Guilds) – These were the unions formed by the cultivators, merchants, bankers, etc.(eg. postal unions) which later got affiliated to bigger unions called Nigams or Industrial Corporation.
The workers were exploited under the Autocratic rule of Mughals and paid wages as meager as Rs. 3/4 per month (comprising of 40 days). INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS
Kautilya emphasized that the minor faults of the employees should be condoned and both the workers and the management should never violate the terms of employment by engaging in some another work or by employing some other worker, respectively. EARLY BRITISH RULE (19th CENTURY)
The industry developed at a fast pace during this era. Following industries had established their presence in India:
Indigo Plantations in 1831
Cotton Mills, Bombay in 1853
Jute Mills, Calcutta in 1853
However, the non- agriculture sector of India was completely destroyed by British by exploiting the workers and India was left as a Backward Agriculture Economy. PRE-INDEPENDENCE PERIOD
During 1st and 2nd world war, profits went up enormously. But these profits were not shared with the workers. Under the influence of ILO, Trade Disputes Act (1917) and Trade Union Act (1926) were framed. But to check dissatisfaction among...
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