Evaluation of impacts and developments of nanotechnology
During the past quarter of century nanotechnology is one of most commonly known and developing science in the world. Sobolev (2005 p. 14) asserts that nanotechnology is the next industrial revolutionary science, which leads physics, chemistry and biology scientist to control and manipulate matter at extremely small scale, even at the level of molecules and atoms. Sahoo (2006 p. 21) defines nanotechnology as a science of manipulation, characterization and fabrication of materials, devices and structures, which have at least one dimension, that is roughly 1-100 nm. When sizes of particles of different components are reduced below this threshold the material obtained exhibit chemical and physical properties that are significantly different compared with macroscale materials composed of the same materials. This essay will investigate and evaluate the societal effects and future scientific implementations for development of nanotechnology, followed by economical impacts and issues with it. Scientists and industry stakeholders have determined potential applications of nanotechnology in different segments of industry. to Duncan (2011), several observations indicate that food industry is one of the most common applications of NT. Notwithstanding the fact that it is utilized in agriculture in order to provide soil with pesticide, fertilizer and vaccine, and detect plant and animal pathogen, also apply engineering principles for genetics of crops, the most frequent implication of nanotechnology in food nanoscience research and development is packaging. For instance, pathogen, gas or abuse sensors, anticounterfeiting devices, UV protection and more retentive polymer films were used for packaging, thus, the storage of food becomes innocuous because food is better protected from dirt and dust, oxygen, pathogenic microorganisms, light and variety of other harmful and destructive substances. Moreover, Ferrari (2005) has stressed that, another urgent application of nanotechnology is cancer NT, examples of such nano-technologies for treatment of breast cancer include injectable delivery (nanovectors) of liposomes. In contrast with simple devices, NT suggests circumspect ways of cacer therapy by delivering therapeutic agents without any side effects and with minimal or concurrent loss of life quality. In spite of the fact that nanotechnology products facilitate life of society, they prevail some obstructions. As Handy (2007) points out, scientific community and policy makers are keen to avoid the situation of public boycott, because of the food products containing manufactured nanomaterials. For instance, there is strict regulatory control of export and import of food into European Union and in the UK, but it does not include nanomaterials. On the other hand it is difficult to protect individual consumers with such legislation, such as society members privately purchase food products via internet. Consequently, society and government are not aware enough about nanotechnology and its future benefits and impact on food industry and consumption. In case of food packaging, the contamination of food with nanomaterials depend partly on environmental quality and whether nanomaterials can lead to pollution of agricultural land, as well as the usage of nanomaterials in farming. Nanoingredients such as vitamins and minerals are being developed for animal feeds, however nanomaterials are not currently used for this. From the perspectives of toxicology, clearance of nanomaterials from the edible parts of animal and the probability of metabolism of nanomaterials would be essential. This will inform farmers and regulators about how much time is needed for agricultural/farming use of nanomaterials and the harvest/slaughter of life stock in order to reduce unwanted nanomaterials in the food products. There seems to be no compelling reason to argue that another drawback of...
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