CNDV 5328 Research and Program Evaluation Final Project
CNDV 5382 Final Course Project
The Importance of using Research to Advance the Counseling Profession
Being able to read, understand, and effectively apply research in practice is an important part of the counselor’s job. Research is a systematic investigation that involves collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information in a sequential manner in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon of interest. Counselors who conduct research become interested in a topic and a specific question; they set about gathering the data needed to answer the question, analyze the data, and report results to others in the profession. To be confident that what we find is real, each step of the process, each characteristic of interest, and all aspects of the environment in which the information resides must be clearly defined. This process of collection and organization should be conducted and reported with as much precision as possible, to allow other researchers to reproduce and verify the validity of the findings. In the long run, research informs the profession and enhances your ability to use best-practice methods.
Research is a search for truth that begins with a question. Counselors conduct research as scientist-practitioners, that is, as those who are accountable to the profession (Haring-Hidore & Vacc, 1988). Scientist-practitioners seek to better understand the challenges and events encountered in the discipline of counseling, which leads to better and more inclusive ways of working with clients and producing positive counseling outcomes. Research is not conducted purely for research’s sake; it is conducted with the intent to benefit those we serve in the profession of counseling. (Sheperis, Daniels, & Young, 2010)
Keywords used for Literature Search and the Number of Results Found
gay students (75,122), lesbian students (74,069), bisexual students (73,858), high school environments
(189,066), heterosexuals (1,933), adolescents (25,333)
Analyze the type of research methods used in each article selected (e.g., qualitative, quantitative, single-case designs, action research, and outcome-based research)
Quantitative design. The article, “Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youths’ Perceptions of Their High School Environments and Comfort in School,” used a quantitative design in the research. The study was part of a larger investigation examining risk and protective factors related to gay, lesbian, and bisexual adolescents’ mental health and behavioral functioning. The measures discussed in this study were only a small part of the overall assessment. Self-identified gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths, ages 13 to 18, in northern New England were recruited through community-based support groups, youths’ friendship networks, parents, and adolescent service providers, and an advertised toll-free telephone line. The study sample consisted of 184 youths. Approximately 62 percent were girls and 94 percent were white. The author administered the self-report questionnaires directly. Written informed assent (under age 18) or consent (age 18) was obtained from all participants. No parents refused permission for their child to participate. The questionnaires were usually administered in small groups and took approximately 1 to 1 ¼ hours to complete. The Institutional Review Board at Washington University approved all procedures. Youths received a cash payment of $20 as a behavioral incentive for participating. (Elze, 2003) Quantitative design. The article, “Risk and Protective Factors for Poor School Adjustment in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual (LGB) High School Youth: Variable and Person-Centered Analyses” used a quantitative design. Participants in this study were 101 self-identified lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. To be eligible for participation, students had to be actively enrolled in an area high school or have completed school...
References: Elze D., (2003). Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Youths’ Perceptions of Their High School Environments and Comfort in School. National Association of Social Workers, Inc. Children & Schools, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 225-239.
Graybill E., Varjas K., Meyers J. & Watson L., (2009). Content-Specific Strategies to Advocate for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth: An Exploratory Study. School Psychology Review, Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 570-584.
Hatzenbuehler M., (2011). The Social Environment and Suicide Attempt in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youth. Pediatrics Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/127/5/896.full.html
Munoz-Plaza, Quinn C., and Crouse S., (2003). Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Students: Perceived Social Support in the High School Environment. The High School Journal, Vol. 85(4), pp. 52-63.
Murdock T. & Bolch M., (2005). Risk and Protective Factors for Poor School Adjustment in Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual (LGB) High School Youth: Variable and Person-Centered Analysis. Psychology in the Schools, Vol. 42(2), pp. 159-172.
Robinson K., (2010). A Study of Young Lesbian and Gay People’s School Experiences. Educational Psychology in Practice, Vol. 26, No. 4. pp. 331-351.
Rosario M., Schrimshaw E., & Hunter J., (2011). Different Patterns of Sexual Identity Development over Time: Implications for the Psychological Adjustment of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths. Journal of Sex Research, vol. 48(1), pp. 3-15
Sheperis, C. J., Young, J. S., & Daniels, M. H. (2010).Counseling research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. (1 Ed.). Boston, MA. Pearson.
van Wormer K. & McKinney R., (2003). What Schools Can do to Help Gay/Lesbian/Bisexual Youth: a Harm Reduction Approach. Adolescence, Vol. 38, No. 151. Libra Publishers, Inc.
Woronoff R. & Estrada R., (2006). Regional Listening Forums: An Examination of the Methodologies Used by the Child Welfare League of American and Lambda Legal to Highlight the Experiences of LGBTQ Youth and Care. Child Welfare League of America. Vol. LXXXV, #2. pp. 341-360.
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