Evaluate a leader’s leadership style and implications for performance and satisfaction.
What is leadership?
Leadership has been described as "a process of social influence in which a person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task". For example, some understand a leader simply as somebody whom people follow, or as somebody who guides or directs others, while others define leadership as "organizing a group of people to achieve a common goal". Studies of leadership have produced theories involving traits, situational interaction, function, behavior, power, visioning values, charisma, and intelligence, among others.
WHAT IS LEADERSHIP STYLE?
Leadership style is a form of cross situational behavioral consistency. It refers to the manner in which a leader interacts with his or her subordinates. More specifically, dimensions of leadership style depict the way in which a leader (a) attempts to influence the behavior of subordinates (Goal Attainment Function); (b) makes decisions regarding the direction of the group (Adaptation Function); and (c) his or her balance between the goal attainment function and the maintenance function of the group. Listed below are three different ways in leadership style has been defined.
WHAT DETERMINES A LEADER'S STYLE?
Leadership Style is most often viewed as a dependent variable where the focus is on how does leadership style influences individual behavior, attitudes, and group/organizational performance. The Determinants of Leadership Style approach asks what factors influence a given leader's dominant style and how is leadership style developed. Below is a listing of the various cognitive, behavioral, and dispositional approaches suggested in the literature. In other words, why does a leader use a particular style? Like all behavioral patterns, the style that a leader uses is based on a complex developmental process involving many variables. The variables influencing a leader's style are discussed below. These variables become very important when an organization designs a leadership development program that attempts to influence the style of leadership used by its managers and supervisors.
Self-Concept & Sources of Motivation
Reinforcement: Social Learning
Leadership styles vary according to organizational structure, people, environment, and task. Leaders promote loyalty among subordinates by keeping an open mind, being self-aware, and being inquisitive. Awareness is important in working effectively with diverse groups and individuals, regardless of personal bias. Anger and frustration indicate a closed mind. The effective leader asks questions with a genuine interest in learning more, rather than as a probe to expose a mistake or fault. Employee inquiries should be conducted with genuine interest and with demonstrated respect. Even more important is listening to the feedback, so that appropriate action (if necessary) may be taken. One model for understanding leadership styles differentiates between four types of leaders: Directing leaders direct subordinates in what, how, when and where tasks should be done. These leaders maintain a standard of performance, and their style is high-directive and low-supportive in nature. Coaching (participative) leaders welcome input and consult with employees. These leaders are highly directive-oriented, but they are also highly supportive. Supporting leaders are friendly and show concern for the well-being of their subordinates; they treat subordinates as equals and offer a high-supportive and low-directive environment. Delegating (achievement-oriented) leaders encourage high achievement and sets...
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