In this essay, two models of cognitive process – memory will be evaluated. Memory is defined to be the mental process of encoding, storing and retrieving information. There are three stages of memory: encoding, storage and retrieval. Encoding is the process of converting physical stimuli into a form that the brain’s memory system can interpret and use. Types of encoding: first, acoustic - sound, spoken words, second, visual - images, “mental snapshots” and third, sematic - “general meanings” – concepts and idea. In this essay it will be focused on the multi-store memory and working model of memory.
The multi store model describes memory in terms of information flowing through a system. Accordingly, it can be described as an information processing model with an input, process and output. Information is detected by the sense organs and enters the sensory memory. If attended to this, information enters the short term memory. Information from the STM (short time memory) is transferred to the long-time memory only if that information is repeated – rehearsed. Rehearsal was initially described by Atkinson and Shiffrin as maintenance rehearsal. Atkinson and Shiffrin were among the first to create a basic structure of memory, using their "multi-sore model of memory". This model is based on the two assumptions that memory consists of a number of separate stores and that the memory processes are sequential. "Rehearsing" simply means that a task/something needs to be repeated several times in order to be stored into people’s heads. Information from the world enters sensory memory, which is modality specific - this means that it is related to various senses. Information in this store only stays for a very short time... only a small amount will be passed onto the short-term memory store. The capacity of the short term memory is limited to around seven times, and only lasts