History of European Union
All the states were devastated. They were trying to prevent any kind of conflicts. Main point and biggest concern - Germany. USA wanted to strengthen opposition to communism in Europe, wanted to accelerate German recovery. USA wanted to promote recovery in the whole Europe. From US perspective - weak Germany=weak Europe.
Marshall plan - was the American initiative to aid Europe, in which the United States gave economic support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to prevent the spread of Soviet Communism. States had to cooperate to receive money from US. Europe had to jointly administer funds. French attitude - France agreed, but wanted to modernize it’s own economy first and then let Germany do that. That is also why US wanted UK to join in. UK was interested in intergovernmental cooperation only. France - reluctant of speed. UK - of creating of such an institution. French came up with idea to reconcile their French-German tension with creating Steal & Coal Community. These elements were essential for industry and making war.
In 1950 brilliant idea from France - Schumann Plan. Create new form of organization of European state - which would have supranational identity. Supranational - works on behalf of the entire community, not states. Members do not represent the interests of particular states. European Commission is an example. Inter governmental - every state has a representative in the institutions, each member represents self interest. 9 May 1950 - creation of Schumann Declaration. They celebrate Europe Day on that day. May
5 - Creation of Council of Europe, 1949. Council of Europe has nothing to do with the European Union.
Schumann proposal - Creating European Coal and Steal Community. It doesn’t exist anymore, it expired in 2002. Germany, Italy, France, Benelux. UK didn’t sign - they were willing to stay aside. Scandinavian countries - against supranational solutions. Spain and Portugal were dictatorships. Greece - decided to join, but a bit later. ECSC. Question of German remilitarization - another French idea: we control it within the European defense community. 1952 - same 6 countries establish European Defense Community. 1950s - outbreak of Korean war. French parliament refused to sign at the very end. Agreement have never entered into force. Germany formed an army anyway and 6 countries + UK observed it.
ECSC was operating well, but it’s political and economic impact wasn’t that high. Back then intergovernmental cooperation spills over into other areas. ACSC is not enough. President of ACSC (French) wanted deeper integration in Europe. Coal was rapidly loosing it’s position. His idea - Euroatom. 6 member states agreed on the idea. At the same time decided to create EEC. These 2 created by the Treaties of Rome in 1957-58. About EEC and Euroatom. The process is time consuming, because the process of ratification varies from country to country. We had 3 organizations: ECSC 1952, Euroatom 1957, EEC 1957.
Treaties of Rome are basic as it comes to European integration process. Afterwards we had few new treaties. Most important is that when we negotiate every new treaty after the Treaties of Rome - every other treaty amended a previous ones.
Main reason of integration in Europe - economic cooperation. Nowadays we have more cooperation than that, still everything started from economic cooperation.
Phases of development:
1. 1950s-1970s: ECSC is a success - starting point for integration. EDC - failure. Succeeded in economic cooperation, but failed in common defense establishing. States were not ready to cooperate strongly on political level. Ideology that gathered all European states against USSR. Economic cooperation was #1, ideology - #2. Traditionally states were wary of their independence. The entire idea came from France. Within the phase 1 there came the empty chair crisis - Charles de Goll was interested in...
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