The european Union
historical key-data points
The European Union was created in the aftermath of the 2nd World War. The first step was to ensure Economic Cooperation between countries trading with each other’s in Europe.
1948 - 1952
Marshall Plan: European Economic Cooperation. The plan provides know-how on financial aid and economic liberalization & integration of countries in Europe. 1952
Treaty of Paris: The European Coal and Steel Community is established by six founding members (Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands and Federal West Republic of Germany) 1957
Treaty of Rome: European Economic Community (common market between founding member estates)+ European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). 1968
Abolition of customs duties with the Customs Union (free trade area with common external tariff). 1973
Denmark, Ireland and the UK join the Community.
Development of the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). 1975
European Regional Development Fund was established.
First elections of the European parliament (5years)
1981 - 1986
First Mediterranean enlargement: Greece, Spain and Portugal 1990
Unification of Germany.
Treaty on European Union adopted by the European Council at Maastricht in 1991, coming into force in November 1993. Maastricht treaty also included the criteria needed to join the Community. The EU Treaty also includes the European Economic Community (EMU) as a formal objective setting the convergence criteria. 1993
European Single Act established the European Single Market: adding areas of intergovernmental cooperation and creating the European Union Treaty. 1995
Rich enlargement (15 M.S.)
Treaty of Amsterdam
Common monetary policy based on single currency. € was introduced for no-cash transfers 2000
Lisbon strategy was adopted for modernising the European economy, encouraging innovation and increase employment rate to ensure improvement of welfare. 2001
Treaty of Nice established new voting systems (Qualified majority voting). 2002
Launch for € bills and coins
10 more countries join the Union:
Romania and Bulgaria join the EU
ENLARGEMENT AND NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY IN THE EU
According to the EU Treaty of Rome and European state may apply to become a member of the Community. The Maastricht Treaty adds that the member that wants to join the EU shall have a government founded on the principles of democracy. If a country is democratic sustainable, then must fulfil three criteria so as to become a member in negotiation process. The membership conditions criteria is the COPENHAGEN CRITERIA and it defines whether a country is eligible or not to become a candidate. 1. Political criteria: stable institution guaranteeing democracy, rule of law, human rights and respect/protection of minorities. 2. Economic criteria: functioning market economy able to cope with competitive pressure and marketing forces of the EU. 3. Legislative alignment: ability of takes obligations of membership & having a public administration capable of applying and managing EU laws in practise. If a country fulfil all the Copenhagen criteria is able to start negotiation with the European Commission. Decision to allow a new country must be taken unanimously by all the M.S.
COUNTRIES ON THE ROAD TO EU MEMBERSHIP
Finished negotiations. Soon will become a member state
Iceland, Turkey, Yugoslavia
Candidates in negotiation
Montenegro, Macedonia and Serbia
Candidates without starting negotiations
West Balkans: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo
1. Public Debt < 60% GDP
2. Deficit < 3% GDP
3. Inflation rate < 1,5% + average of 3 lowest MS
4. Interest rate < 3% + average of 3 lowest MS
5. Exchange rate without devaluations reagarding € in 3 years according to the EMS
The ENP was created in 2004 and is regulated by the Commission. The policy...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document